An expanding universe must expand in four dimensions, not three, because there can be no external frame of reference for time. This throws up some rather bewildering observer effects. The universe is expanding through its own temporal frame of reference. It is making its own time. This is the dimension in which entropy drives the expanding universe so we regard the universe as existing only at this temporal boundary. If we return to our balloon analogy then the skin of the balloon represents the time dimension and this is where the universe actually is. The three-dimensional space which the skin of the balloon encloses is the universe that we perceive. Therefore space is made by expanding time and has no independent existence. Although the universe is a finite entity it can have no spatial boundary, since it is everything that exists. However it must have a temporal boundary or reality could not proceed in an orderly fashion. The temporal boundary of the universe is the present quantum moment. This is defined as the smallest possible unit of time in which anything, anywhere in the universe, can actually physically happen. Because space and time are a single continuum we also need to define a quantum unit of space. We define this as the smallest possible volume of space within which something can actually physically happen. Thus the universe has a cellular structure like mini bubble-wrap. The fundamental mechanism of physical reality is thus analogous to a binary logic gate. Time exists to stop everything in the universe from happening at once and orderly reality requires that only one thing can happen in one place at one time.

At the temporal boundary of the universe, the present quantum moment, only one thing can be happening in any particular quantum cell of space. It either loses a photon or receives a photon. This is happening in every quantum moment in every quantum cell of space-time. We need to get some sense of scale here. The Planck time is defined already in quantum theory, but Max Planck didnâ€™t realise, either, that the universe was expanding.

Quantum physics is oblivious to the time dimension and therefore makes no sense, but quantum principles are eminently logical when we consider the nature of infinity. If the universe is finite it can contain no infinite entity and no aspect of reality can be infinitely divisible. The buck must stop somewhere and in this model fundamental reality is completely determined by the configuration of energy densities at these fundamental logic gates. The physical world we perceive is the emergent consequence. The reality we observe is always separated from the present moment being enacted by a finite number of quantum moments. We observe the wake of time. The present moment is always beyond our perception but we see the information that the moments leave behind. We live in this hologram because we are contained within the reality we are observing. The observer is also expanding into the time dimension, but not necessarily at the same speed as the observation, hence the weird observer effects. There is a third player in this story of temporal expansion, namely gravity.

The Planck moment has been calculated and comes in as a spectacularly brief instant of time. 5.4 x 1044 of these quantum moments occur every second of our lives, according to Max, and this might not be far off the mark in inter-galactic space, where gravitational effects are tiny, but it has long been well known that time slows down near large cosmic objects with mass. The clock in the orbiting satellite runs faster than the clock on the ground, as does the one on the mountain-top. The clock on top of your head runs faster than the one at your feet if clocks could only measure that fast. Gravity and time are interwoven and determine the rate of expansion of the universe. Our balloon analogy is still valid but our balloon has a very strange shape.

We now abandon the speed of light as the cosmic speed limit and substitute it with the speed of time, since this is the dimension into which the universe is expanding. It is thus also the dimension within which light propagates itself throughout the universe. Relative to us light does not move at all and thus is perceived as a constant. The three-dimensional universe of our perceptions is the informational representation of this expansion process occurring at the temporal boundary and being projected to our senses backwards in time. If distances in space and time are equivalent then the speed of light must be a relativistic quantity determined by the speed of time. In absolute terms the speed of light cannot be a constant. Light cannot travel faster than time. It travels at exactly the speed of time and the speed of time is determined by the other player in the fundamental dance of reality, the graviton. He is the time boson that determines exactly how long the quantum moment exists and thus he is always a moment ahead of the present. Since this offers us the geometry of four-dimensional space-time we are obliged to enlarge our continuum to include gravity and arrive at the clumsy handle of space-grav-time. It is not necessary to regard gravity as a fifth dimension because it is an emergent property of events taking place at the binary logic gates, where fundamental reality is coming into existence. Thus the universe makes its own time and is self-causal. It shapes itself by the laws of physics according to its own programming. It is a Universal Turing Machine. It is a computational entity executing a programme which then programmes its own input. Our cosmos is an eternal reality maker.

More in Part 3.....