Aluminum conducts electricity

Discussions on introductory science topics. Ask simple or beginner questions and expect clear and level answers.

Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 11th, 2015, 11:49 am 

Aluminum seems to be occupying my year. Back again.

I know that aluminum is very slightly magnetic. I learned that here.

I know that aluminum conducts electricity. Major surgery on our entire apartment complex taught all of us this. Well, all of us who wanted to know, anyway.

Question: Is aluminum a natural conductor of electricity? Or does it result from what I've learned about electromagnetism:

Weak magnetic force + electricity run through a coil = electromagnetism = a stronger magnetic force?

If I have that right - I hope - does that have anything to do with aluminum conducting electricity? Besides electricity, is a strong magnetic force necessary to conduct electricity.

Gee, I hope that makes sense? Thank you.
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 11th, 2015, 6:09 pm 

vivian maxine » Sun Oct 11, 2015 11:49 am wrote:Aluminum seems to be occupying my year. Back again.

I know that aluminum is very slightly magnetic. I learned that here.

I know that aluminum conducts electricity. Major surgery on our entire apartment complex taught all of us this. Well, all of us who wanted to know, anyway.

Question: Is aluminum a natural conductor of electricity? Or does it result from what I've learned about electromagnetism:

Weak magnetic force + electricity run through a coil = electromagnetism = a stronger magnetic force?

If I have that right - I hope - does that have anything to do with aluminum conducting electricity? Besides electricity, is a strong magnetic force necessary to conduct electricity.

Gee, I hope that makes sense? Thank you.


Unfortunately, there is no simple yes or no answer. You cannot ever separate electricity and magnetism - they are really the same thing, except looked at differently. That said, you do not need a strong magnetic force to get conduction. Aluminum is not magnetic in the usual sense of what the average person means by magnetic, i.e., ferromagnetic.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby Braininvat on October 11th, 2015, 7:44 pm 

Mobile homes used to be built with aluminum wiring. You can still buy wiring connectors and such at places like Lowes, for Al circuits. (Shudder)
User avatar
Braininvat
Forum Administrator
 
Posts: 6793
Joined: 21 Jan 2014
Location: Black Hills


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby BioWizard on October 11th, 2015, 8:49 pm 

Vivian,

Electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductive substance.
Magnetism is a force that can be "felt" strongly by magnets and ferromagnetic substances, such as iron.

Magnetism and Electricity are related. The flow of a current (movement of electrons) gives rise to magnetism. Conversely, the movement of a magnet can induce a current to flow. Maxwell's equations relate the two processes mathematically.

Electricity and magnetism (the force) are different from the two propeties: conductiviy and ferromagnetism.

Conductive substances allow electrons to flow freely through them. Ferromagnetic substances "feel" magnetic fields strongly and can themselves become permanently magnetized. These two things, conductivity and ferromagnetism, are properties of matter itself. Some substances are conductive. Some are ferromagnetic. Some are both. Aluminum is conductive but not ferromagnetic. Iron is ferromagnetic and conductive. The reasons are quantum mechanical in nature and have to do with the structure of the atoms of each substance.

Substances that are not ferromagnetic can be diamagnetic or paramagnetic. I don't think you need to worry about those in the context of your question. They're just stuff that barely interacts with magnetic fields (so most stuff).

The flow of a current through a conductive wire creates a magnetic field around the wire. However, this is purely due to the flowing current, and doesn't change the magnetic properties of the material in the wire per say - and isn't a change in the material's ferromagnetic/diamagnetic/paramagnetic properties. So current flowing through your aluminum will create a magnetic field, but won't alter aluminum's magnetic properties.

Hope this helps clarify some things (and that I didn't misunderstand your questions).
User avatar
BioWizard
Forum Administrator
 
Posts: 12763
Joined: 24 Mar 2005
Location: United States
Blog: View Blog (3)


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 11th, 2015, 10:19 pm 

Braininvat » Sun Oct 11, 2015 7:44 pm wrote:Mobile homes used to be built with aluminum wiring. You can still buy wiring connectors and such at places like Lowes, for Al circuits. (Shudder)


I know you're too young to remember this, but a fellow by the name of Allende nationalized the Chilean copper mines in the early 70s. That drove copper prices up to the point where aluminum wire became cheaper, and builders began using it in houses. It is OK, provided you are very careful. My house had aluminum, and we had only two small fires before it got replaced with copper.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby BioWizard on October 12th, 2015, 10:03 am 

So... thinking some more about why aluminum wiring is correlated with higher fire incidence...

Is it because the aluminum oxidizes at exposed termination points, which increases resistance and in turn leads to overheating? Or is it something else? Would appropriate installation remedy that?
User avatar
BioWizard
Forum Administrator
 
Posts: 12763
Joined: 24 Mar 2005
Location: United States
Blog: View Blog (3)


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby zetreque on October 12th, 2015, 11:35 am 

BioWizard » Mon Oct 12, 2015 7:03 am wrote:So... thinking some more about why aluminum wiring is correlated with higher fire incidence...

Is it because the aluminum oxidizes at exposed termination points, which increases resistance and in turn leads to overheating? Or is it something else? Would appropriate installation remedy that?


Could another reason be how aluminum expands/contracts compared to copper? Expanding contracting loosens connections which increases resistance which heats it up.

THERMAL EXPANSION
Substance Linear Coefficient α (1/ oC) Volumetric Coeff. β = 3α (1/ oC)
Aluminum 24 x 10 -6 72 x 10 -6
Brass 19 x 10 -6 57 x 10 -6
Copper 17 x 10 -6 51 x 10 -6
Glass (ordinary) 9 x 10 -6 27 x 10 -6
User avatar
zetreque
Forum Moderator
 
Posts: 3662
Joined: 30 Dec 2007
Location: Paradise being lost to humanity
Blog: View Blog (3)


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby Ursa Minimus on October 12th, 2015, 11:38 am 

BioWizard » October 12th, 2015, 8:03 am wrote:So... thinking some more about why aluminum wiring is correlated with higher fire incidence...

Is it because the aluminum oxidizes at exposed termination points, which increases resistance and in turn leads to overheating? Or is it something else? Would appropriate installation remedy that?


Yes it oxidizes at exposed points, and faster with heat. So the point of failure is the termination points, usually the ones in the receptacles. Especially ones with high amp things plugged in. Two other things are also involved, at least that I can think of.

AL also expands more than copper, creating more stress over time.

And AL is not resilient to bending forces as copper. So a heavy hand with the strippers or when tightening the contact points can create another source of problems down the line.
User avatar
Ursa Minimus
Member
 
Posts: 605
Joined: 05 Feb 2012
Location: Northwoods, USA


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby Braininvat on October 12th, 2015, 11:39 am 

Having done a lot of renovation, I've heard for years that the problem is oxidation leading to overheating where the wire is connected at splices, outlets and light fixtures. Also greater expansion, stressing the joint. Just having a run of aluminum wire is not dangerous, it's the connections that degrade. And the bad connections will not trip a circuit breaker because those are activated by too much current. So you get heat building up at the connection. I've heard figures on the order of an AL wired house being 50 times more prone to fires.

As Canady said, I'm a little young to remember Allende nationalizing the copper mines. I would have been an oblivious teenager around the time. LOL "only two small fires..."

And I see 2 other posts have said much the same thing. heh.
User avatar
Braininvat
Forum Administrator
 
Posts: 6793
Joined: 21 Jan 2014
Location: Black Hills


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 12th, 2015, 1:24 pm 

BioWizard » October 11th, 2015, 7:49 pm wrote:Vivian,

Electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductive substance.
Magnetism is a force that can be "felt" strongly by magnets and ferromagnetic substances, such as iron.

Magnetism and Electricity are related. The flow of a current (movement of electrons) gives rise to magnetism. Conversely, the movement of a magnet can induce a current to flow. Maxwell's equations relate the two processes mathematically.

Electricity and magnetism (the force) are different from the two propeties: conductiviy and ferromagnetism.

Conductive substances allow electrons to flow freely through them. Ferromagnetic substances "feel" magnetic fields strongly and can themselves become permanently magnetized. These two things, conductivity and ferromagnetism, are properties of matter itself. Some substances are conductive. Some are ferromagnetic. Some are both. Aluminum is conductive but not ferromagnetic. Iron is ferromagnetic and conductive. The reasons are quantum mechanical in nature and have to do with the structure of the atoms of each substance.

Substances that are not ferromagnetic can be diamagnetic or paramagnetic. I don't think you need to worry about those in the context of your question. They're just stuff that barely interacts with magnetic fields (so most stuff).

The flow of a current through a conductive wire creates a magnetic field around the wire. However, this is purely due to the flowing current, and doesn't change the magnetic properties of the material in the wire per say - and isn't a change in the material's ferromagnetic/diamagnetic/paramagnetic properties. So current flowing through your aluminum will create a magnetic field, but won't alter aluminum's magnetic properties.

Hope this helps clarify some things (and that I didn't misunderstand your questions).


All right. Thank you. All that came together when I started wondering if, since aluminum can be attracted by a strong magnet, is it itself magnetic. Then I started trying to find exactly what electromagnetism is. Your explanation sheds good light on my vague understanding.

I had not known magnetism is created by the flow of electricity through the medium. I thought it was just the opposite. Seems to be both. So, still something to fit into the picture. I've been out all morning. Will get into this later.
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 12th, 2015, 1:44 pm 

You all are explaining it pretty much as they told it to us. Over-heating at junction points. The history is this but must first assure everybody that we did not have a fire. Our apartment complex was built before a new ordinance forbade aluminum wiring. You all know about "grandfather clauses". So, here we sat. You really can't - well, I suppose you could but what a humongous job - rewire all these buildings. I don't know how many there are for certain but do know there are at least 14. When a new company bought the complex, they did what can be done. Someone else more knowledgeable will need to tell this straight. Basically, there is a little "gizmo" that you put into each and every electric switch, outlet and ceiling light/fan unit. Somehow this blocks any misfiring arc of electricity.

And that's our story. A company spent months going building to building. As our turns came up, we had to move everything in the apartment that blocked any outlet or light switch. The men came and installed those "gizmos". I know. They do have a name but even the workman didn't know what they are called. He called them "gizmos".

Now comes the final chapter. County inspectors are going through every building to confirm that the job has been properly done.

We are safer - so they say.
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby Braininvat on October 12th, 2015, 3:25 pm 

Gizmos are probably Alumiconn lugs. Or "purple twisters" are commonly used. If they are willing to spend money, they might do pigtailing with Amp Copalums, which leaves you with copper going into the outlet or light box. But I think they'd go with lugs and antioxidant goo. Any option is safer, but I'd pigtail with copalums if it was my house.
User avatar
Braininvat
Forum Administrator
 
Posts: 6793
Joined: 21 Jan 2014
Location: Black Hills


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 12th, 2015, 3:30 pm 

Braininvat » October 12th, 2015, 2:25 pm wrote:Gizmos are probably Alumiconn lugs. Or "purple twisters" are commonly used. If they are willing to spend money, they might do pigtailing with Amp Copalums, which leaves you with copper going into the outlet or light box. But I think they'd go with lugs and antioxidant goo. Any option is safer, but I'd pigtail with copalums if it was my house.


All I saw is a small, dark-colored square thing. Didn't see any "goo" or what I know as goo. All I saw them do is wire them in. But I stayed out of the way. So, they could have done more.
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 12th, 2015, 4:35 pm 

Braininvat » Mon Oct 12, 2015 11:39 am wrote:Having done a lot of renovation, I've heard for years that the problem is oxidation leading to overheating where the wire is connected at splices, outlets and light fixtures. Also greater expansion, stressing the joint. Just having a run of aluminum wire is not dangerous, it's the connections that degrade. And the bad connections will not trip a circuit breaker because those are activated by too much current. So you get heat building up at the connection. I've heard figures on the order of an AL wired house being 50 times more prone to fires.

As Canady said, I'm a little young to remember Allende nationalizing the copper mines. I would have been an oblivious teenager around the time. LOL "only two small fires..."

And I see 2 other posts have said much the same thing. heh.


I believe the ratio is about 55. As you said, the big problem is expansion. You get some connection oxidation, it heats up a little, expands (aluminum has very high thermal expansion), that loosens the joint a little, you get more corrosion - well, there's just no stopping it. The other problem is that spec rated outlets in the 70s were probably rated only for copper. Some good builders used the Al-Cu rated fixtures, but even those had some problems. There are ones now rated for expansion stress; I think they're all marked ALR. But, 20 A circuits were also a problem. You have to use 10 AWG for Al wire to carry 20 A, and standard fixtures won't accept 10 AWG. At that point you have to pigtail.

There is some sort of arcing suppression that I heard about, but have never seen. Maybe that's what they put in VM's building.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby BioWizard on October 12th, 2015, 4:41 pm 

Huh. I'll be sure to avoid aluminum wiring from now on. Good thing I haven't had to do any wiring so far :]

Vive la science!
User avatar
BioWizard
Forum Administrator
 
Posts: 12763
Joined: 24 Mar 2005
Location: United States
Blog: View Blog (3)


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 12th, 2015, 5:28 pm 

BioWizard » Mon Oct 12, 2015 4:41 pm wrote:Huh. I'll be sure to avoid aluminum wiring from now on. Good thing I haven't had to do any wiring so far :]

Vive la science!


It does have its place. Service entrance cable is often aluminum. The trick is that it goes into compression connectors that are rated for aluminum and (presumably) fastened properly. Cable like this is also coated with No-Ox or similar within a few minutes of being stripped of its insulation. But, I wouldn't use the stuff inside my house if you held a gun to my head.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby wolfhnd on October 13th, 2015, 12:02 am 

User avatar
wolfhnd
Resident Member
 
Posts: 4698
Joined: 21 Jun 2005
Blog: View Blog (3)


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 13th, 2015, 7:35 am 

If what I read is true, the problem in our homes increases as we add more electricity-using systems. The more you pile onto a line, the hotter it gets. I'm guessing - correct me if I am wrong - that the old habit of overloading outlets with extra plugs and extension cords cause a lot of fires long ago.
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 13th, 2015, 7:49 am 

wolfhnd » October 12th, 2015, 11:02 pm wrote:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhead_power_line


Thanks, Wulfhnd. His mention of undergrounding reminded me of something. Where I used to live we had a transformer outside our building that was forever blowing a fuse (speaking figuratively). Eventually, they came out and put the wiring underground. The transformer was in a box down the way. They told us "Now your transformer will no longer be blowing.

Ha. Next storm came along and out it went. :-)
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 13th, 2015, 8:10 am 

vivian maxine » Tue Oct 13, 2015 7:35 am wrote:If what I read is true, the problem in our homes increases as we add more electricity-using systems. The more you pile onto a line, the hotter it gets. I'm guessing - correct me if I am wrong - that the old habit of overloading outlets with extra plugs and extension cords cause a lot of fires long ago.


It still does. Their use allows you to defeat the practice of limiting electrical appliances with cords to about 10 Amps. An outlet will be rated at 15 A or 20 A; using multiple plug cords allows you to draw maybe 30 A or so from the outlet.

In places that really care about fire safety, the use of "cheater taps" is absolutely forbidden, and extension cords may only be used for very short periods of time for a single appliance (i.e., for an electric drill when there is no outlet nearby). Cords can never go under rugs, through doors, etc.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 13th, 2015, 8:40 am 

I was thinking about that the other day when I bought a new lamp and the cord will not reach any socket from where I want it. Manufacturers had what they thought was a good reason for shortening appliance cords but all they did was enhance the extension cord and double socket plug business.


Now people are using those long bars of what they call surge protectors. Are they any safer? I don't think those have battery back-ups. We want more and more power and we are determined to get it.

By the way, something all home owners want to know. A city inspector told me that when he bought his first house the first thing he did was check all the outlets for grounding. In a two-story house, there were eight sources that had never been grounded by the builders. Inspectors had not caught it. "Can't trust anybody." "If you want a thing done right, do it yourself."
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 13th, 2015, 9:02 am 

vivian maxine » Tue Oct 13, 2015 8:40 am wrote:I was thinking about that the other day when I bought a new lamp and the cord will not reach any socket from where I want it. Manufacturers had what they thought was a good reason for shortening appliance cords but all they did was enhance the extension cord and double socket plug business.


Now people are using those long bars of what they call surge protectors. Are they any safer? I don't think those have battery back-ups. We want more and more power and we are determined to get it.

By the way, something all home owners want to know. A city inspector told me that when he bought his first house the first thing he did was check all the outlets for grounding. In a two-story house, there were eight sources that had never been grounded by the builders. Inspectors had not caught it. "Can't trust anybody." "If you want a thing done right, do it yourself."


Measure the cord. If it's much less than 6 feet, you wuz robbed. Just rewire it, putting a 6 foot cord on it. If it still doesn't work, your receptacles are not up to code (the code says receptacles should be close enough to allow a 6 foot cord to work).

You can go to Lowes and, for a low cost, buy an outlet checker that will tell you if the ground is OK and whether the polarity in the outlet is OK. You ought to check them at least every year.

Surge protector strips are really, really, really bad. They encourage overloading, but they also float the ground a few volts, depending on how they're made. Those are made for one specific purpose - a group of commonly grounded computer parts - and should never be used for anything else.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 13th, 2015, 10:07 am 

Close enough to what? They can't legislate where I want my lamp. So I can't complain. But, yes, the cord is six feet long. I didn't know there was such a law. What about kitchen appliances with their three or even two feet long cords?

Funny, though. I purposely bought a lighter-weight lamp so I can move it from here to there for different purposes - all temporary usage. Not a one will get it placed just right. I guess I'll manage.

That's all my surge protector is used for - the computer and printer. Goodness knows, that's enough. But it isn't a strip. It's one of those with battery backup. Cost a bundle!!!!
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 13th, 2015, 12:19 pm 

vivian maxine » Tue Oct 13, 2015 10:07 am wrote:Close enough to what? They can't legislate where I want my lamp. So I can't complain. But, yes, the cord is six feet long. I didn't know there was such a law. What about kitchen appliances with their three or even two feet long cords?

Funny, though. I purposely bought a lighter-weight lamp so I can move it from here to there for different purposes - all temporary usage. Not a one will get it placed just right. I guess I'll manage.

That's all my surge protector is used for - the computer and printer. Goodness knows, that's enough. But it isn't a strip. It's one of those with battery backup. Cost a bundle!!!!


Code says you should be able to put a lamp with a 6 foot cord anyplace in the room and the cord would reach an outlet.

I misspoke on the surge protector strips. It is the neutral that floats up, not the safety ground.

Kitchen appliances with a 2 foot cord can be used with an extension cord if you have to, but I have outlets about every 30 inches or less on my countertops. The thing you want to watch for is that you don't use an extension cord to reach a non-GFI outlet.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby wolfhnd on October 13th, 2015, 2:51 pm 

One of the interesting things about our electrical system is that alternating current has huge induction losses in transmission lines. Over long distances direct current is significantly more efficient. What part does induction play in house hold loses?
User avatar
wolfhnd
Resident Member
 
Posts: 4698
Joined: 21 Jun 2005
Blog: View Blog (3)


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 13th, 2015, 3:35 pm 

"Code says you should be able to put a lamp with a 6 foot cord anyplace in the room and the cord would reach an outlet." (CanadysPeak)

I am sitting here looking around and wondering where our code was. No matter. I must remember when our buildings were built. If there is a code it came later. Then there is the fact that we are in an unincorporated area, meaning the code would come from the county if it came at all.

No complaints. Heavens! We can't even get decent sidewalks. We are surrounded by several suburban towns. Wish one would adopt us. :-)
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 13th, 2015, 3:57 pm 

vivian maxine » Tue Oct 13, 2015 3:35 pm wrote:"Code says you should be able to put a lamp with a 6 foot cord anyplace in the room and the cord would reach an outlet." (CanadysPeak)

I am sitting here looking around and wondering where our code was. No matter. I must remember when our buildings were built. If there is a code it came later. Then there is the fact that we are in an unincorporated area, meaning the code would come from the county if it came at all.

No complaints. Heavens! We can't even get decent sidewalks. We are surrounded by several suburban towns. Wish one would adopt us. :-)


I believe every place has the NEC now, but many don't really enforce it. People do their own wiring and there's seldom any inspection. Plus, as you noted earlier, there is the "grandfather" thingy. About thirty years ago, I looked at a house in an upscale town not far from here and it actually had knob and tube wiring - bare copper inside ceramic tubes and terminated on porcelain posts.

If you have to use extension cords, you can buy good ones that pose less of a risk. The cords should be something like SJT, not the cheap "zip" cord and should be carefully routed so that it never goes under a rug or anyplace where it might get damaged.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby CanadysPeak on October 13th, 2015, 4:15 pm 

wolfhnd » Tue Oct 13, 2015 2:51 pm wrote:One of the interesting things about our electrical system is that alternating current has huge induction losses in transmission lines. Over long distances direct current is significantly more efficient. What part does induction play in house hold loses?


Not too much. If you had a 60 foot run of 12 AWG, carrying 10 A at 60 Hz, you'd get about a 1 V drop from resistance and less than 0.2 V from inductive reactance. DC is better in large diameter cables due to skin effect as well as no inductive reactance, but you have the difficulty of transforming the voltages.
CanadysPeak
Resident Expert
 
Posts: 5931
Joined: 31 Dec 2008


Re: Aluminum conducts electricity

Postby vivian maxine on October 13th, 2015, 4:22 pm 

That is what I am thinking. I have three extension cords in a box of stuff. They must be at least twenty or thirty years old. Being folded over and over and over, I'm sure they are broken here and there. Wouldn't think of using them.

You used to be able to buy two- or three-foot long cords but last time I tried, the man said he'd never heard of them. Must have been a very young whippersnapper. That isn't all he never heard of. He never heard of an iron where the cord is removable. Cord wears out, replace cord and keep old iron. Now, cord wears out, buy a whole new iron. Crazy.

Anyway, the way this lamp will be used, an extension cord will be fine. I have times when I need an extra light at one place or another for a short time. This will serve its purpose. And you are right about getting a good one. You get what you pay for.
vivian maxine
Resident Member
 
Posts: 2837
Joined: 01 Aug 2014



Return to Beginner Science

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 5 guests