Science of Ageing

Discussions on topics related to biochemistry and molecular biology, functional genomics, etc.

Re: Science of Ageing

Postby SciameriKen on January 17th, 2017, 4:04 pm 

ronjanec » Tue Jan 17, 2017 7:54 pm wrote:Your personal comments here are obviously way above my pay grade SK, but I can at least appreciate the fact that there is obviously a whole lot more going on here in regards to human ageing than just primarily cumulative "wear and tear" inside our personal bodies. And I still find this subject very interesting, despite my not being able to understand the vast majority of it. :)


Hehe apologies Ron it came out a bit more technical than I was hoping - I'll sum up by saying that the recent study shows me that the body can repair itself - its just kept from doing it - so I think if we can understand how control these mechanisms then I don't see any reason why living past 120, or even 150 and beyond wouldn't be possible. Before this paper, I was seeing things being capped at about 120 - funny how quickly science changes :)
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby ronjanec on January 17th, 2017, 5:08 pm 

SK,

"the body can repair itself - it's just kept from doing it"? That's really interesting SK, and at least now "we" know the particular problem.
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby BioWizard on June 17th, 2017, 8:20 pm 

Eat this, SciAmeriken :D

https://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v23/n ... .4324.html

Local clearance of senescent cells attenuates the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and creates a pro-regenerative environment

Senescent cells (SnCs) accumulate in many vertebrate tissues with age and contribute to age-related pathologies1, 2, 3, presumably through their secretion of factors contributing to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)4, 5, 6. Removal of SnCs delays several pathologies7, 8, 9 and increases healthy lifespan8. Aging and trauma are risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA)10, a chronic disease characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage leading to pain and physical disability. Senescent chondrocytes are found in cartilage tissue isolated from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery11, 12, 13, 14, yet their role in disease pathogenesis is unknown. To test the idea that SnCs might play a causative role in OA, we used the p16-3MR transgenic mouse, which harbors a p16INK4a (Cdkn2a) promoter driving the expression of a fusion protein containing synthetic Renilla luciferase and monomeric red fluorescent protein domains, as well as a truncated form of herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)15, 16. This mouse strain allowed us to selectively follow and remove SnCs after anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). We found that SnCs accumulated in the articular cartilage and synovium after ACLT, and selective elimination of these cells attenuated the development of post-traumatic OA, reduced pain and increased cartilage development. Intra-articular injection of a senolytic molecule that selectively killed SnCs validated these results in transgenic, non-transgenic and aged mice. Selective removal of the SnCs from in vitro cultures of chondrocytes isolated from patients with OA undergoing total knee replacement decreased expression of senescent and inflammatory markers while also increasing expression of cartilage tissue extracellular matrix proteins. Collectively, these findings support the use of SnCs as a therapeutic target for treating degenerative joint disease.

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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby SciameriKen on June 17th, 2017, 9:01 pm 

Bah! Senolytics is just the resveratrol of 2017!
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby BioWizard on June 17th, 2017, 9:27 pm 

2017? I've been talking about this since 2009!
http://www.sciencechatforum.com/viewtop ... 88#p129388

It's just that now people are realizing they can no longer keep propping up those tired old theories about aging. I've waited 8 years to see these theories die and I'm very happy to see them shriveling and withering away like no amount of antioxidants can save (ha!). Finally I can start getting excited about the possibility of effective anti-aging discoveries. Science is great!
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby SciameriKen on June 18th, 2017, 9:03 pm 

BioWizard » Sun Jun 18, 2017 1:27 am wrote:2017? I've been talking about this since 2009!
http://www.sciencechatforum.com/viewtop ... 88#p129388

It's just that now people are realizing they can no longer keep propping up those tired old theories about aging. I've waited 8 years to see these theories die and I'm very happy to see them shriveling and withering away like no amount of antioxidants can save (ha!). Finally I can start getting excited about the possibility of effective anti-aging discoveries. Science is great!



Senescent cells is definitely an exciting avenue - I suppose they are nice for preventing cancer - but then they spew cytotoxic materials that do contribute to aging. Some new strategies to eliminate them are showing promise. Just removal of p16 senescent cells increases lifespan in mice (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840489). Senolytics (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senolytic) are also showing great results in animal studies. Quercetin is one - a compound found in onions, kale and other such things. Overall though I don't believe eliminating senescent cells will stop aging - my prediction is this field may increase lifespan 5=10% in humans - which would be quite impressive really, but the bigger effect will be on healthspan, or quality of life.
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby BioWizard on June 18th, 2017, 9:23 pm 

Right, removing scenescent cells is part of the equation. Replenishing with fresh new cells is the other half. It's a range of steady states, cancer (or mere hypertrophy) on one end, aging (or mere degeneration) on the other, and youth some bracket in between. Oversimplification of course but you get the idea.
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby wolfhnd on August 10th, 2017, 11:37 pm 

I have started reading through this thread and the importance of environmental factors is of interest to me. While the focus here is on genetic or biochemical processes some population studies may be of interest. The influence of wear and tear for example seems obvious but may be misleading. Obviously coal miners or other occupations involving heavy labor in unhealthy environments will reduce life expectancy. To eliminate the role that an unhealthy environment plays we can turn to elite athletes to see if wear and tear has a negative impact. According to at least the following study elite athlete status is associated with longer life expectancy.

Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534511/

Genetic research into these individuals would be interesting to rule out the possibility that the results have less to do with activity or lifestyle than simply "better" genes.
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby SciameriKen on August 11th, 2017, 9:47 pm 

wolfhnd » Fri Aug 11, 2017 3:37 am wrote:I have started reading through this thread and the importance of environmental factors is of interest to me. While the focus here is on genetic or biochemical processes some population studies may be of interest. The influence of wear and tear for example seems obvious but may be misleading. Obviously coal miners or other occupations involving heavy labor in unhealthy environments will reduce life expectancy. To eliminate the role that an unhealthy environment plays we can turn to elite athletes to see if wear and tear has a negative impact. According to at least the following study elite athlete status is associated with longer life expectancy.

Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534511/

Genetic research into these individuals would be interesting to rule out the possibility that the results have less to do with activity or lifestyle than simply "better" genes.



I think this would be a very difficult cohort to analyze. First, sports are all different, I would imagine American football players probably don't do at all well considering the concussions and obesity for some of the positions. You also have wealth, but with that some will have illicit drug abuse, you have the effects of performance enhancing drugs in some. Additionally, exercise is already known to increase lifespan a few years - instead can we start with analyzing physiological differences between long lived and short lived eskimos?
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby wolfhnd on August 11th, 2017, 10:30 pm 

SciameriKen » Sat Aug 12, 2017 1:47 am wrote:
wolfhnd » Fri Aug 11, 2017 3:37 am wrote:I have started reading through this thread and the importance of environmental factors is of interest to me. While the focus here is on genetic or biochemical processes some population studies may be of interest. The influence of wear and tear for example seems obvious but may be misleading. Obviously coal miners or other occupations involving heavy labor in unhealthy environments will reduce life expectancy. To eliminate the role that an unhealthy environment plays we can turn to elite athletes to see if wear and tear has a negative impact. According to at least the following study elite athlete status is associated with longer life expectancy.

Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534511/

Genetic research into these individuals would be interesting to rule out the possibility that the results have less to do with activity or lifestyle than simply "better" genes.



I think this would be a very difficult cohort to analyze. First, sports are all different, I would imagine American football players probably don't do at all well considering the concussions and obesity for some of the positions. You also have wealth, but with that some will have illicit drug abuse, you have the effects of performance enhancing drugs in some. Additionally, exercise is already known to increase lifespan a few years - instead can we start with analyzing physiological differences between long lived and short lived eskimos?


Well I was surprised that NFL players did fairly well in the study that is accept linemen. The unexpected results is why I posted the article.

I knew that sporting dogs, retrievers to be specific, live much reduced life spans if they participate in field trials regularly compared to companion dogs of the same breed. Human athletes in general don't seem to be effected the same way.

The only reason to study this group is it's size and likely prospect for full participation. It is also cross cultural ruling out that aspect of genetics. Of course the variables make anything conclusive very unlikely. I'm just curious why my personal observations are at odds with the data if I was being totally honest about it I suppose.
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby SciameriKen on August 11th, 2017, 11:42 pm 

wolfhnd » Sat Aug 12, 2017 2:30 am wrote:
SciameriKen » Sat Aug 12, 2017 1:47 am wrote:
wolfhnd » Fri Aug 11, 2017 3:37 am wrote:I have started reading through this thread and the importance of environmental factors is of interest to me. While the focus here is on genetic or biochemical processes some population studies may be of interest. The influence of wear and tear for example seems obvious but may be misleading. Obviously coal miners or other occupations involving heavy labor in unhealthy environments will reduce life expectancy. To eliminate the role that an unhealthy environment plays we can turn to elite athletes to see if wear and tear has a negative impact. According to at least the following study elite athlete status is associated with longer life expectancy.

Do Elite Athletes Live Longer? A Systematic Review of Mortality and Longevity in Elite Athletes

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534511/

Genetic research into these individuals would be interesting to rule out the possibility that the results have less to do with activity or lifestyle than simply "better" genes.



I think this would be a very difficult cohort to analyze. First, sports are all different, I would imagine American football players probably don't do at all well considering the concussions and obesity for some of the positions. You also have wealth, but with that some will have illicit drug abuse, you have the effects of performance enhancing drugs in some. Additionally, exercise is already known to increase lifespan a few years - instead can we start with analyzing physiological differences between long lived and short lived eskimos?


Well I was surprised that NFL players did fairly well in the study that is accept linemen. The unexpected results is why I posted the article.

I knew that sporting dogs, retrievers to be specific, live much reduced life spans if they participate in field trials regularly compared to companion dogs of the same breed. Human athletes in general don't seem to be effected the same way.

The only reason to study this group is it's size and likely prospect for full participation. It is also cross cultural ruling out that aspect of genetics. Of course the variables make anything conclusive very unlikely. I'm just curious why my personal observations are at odds with the data if I was being totally honest about it I suppose.


Perhaps we should start by describing your personal observations? Or are they regarding dogs versus athletes?
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby wolfhnd on August 12th, 2017, 12:00 am 

Let's just drop the athletes angle. I thought was interesting so I shared it. Unfortunately to fit into the thread the population data needs to be combined with biochemistry and I don't have that data.
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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby SciameriKen on August 12th, 2017, 12:21 am 

wolfhnd » Sat Aug 12, 2017 4:00 am wrote:Let's just drop the athletes angle. I thought was interesting so I shared it. Unfortunately to fit into the thread the population data needs to be combined with biochemistry and I don't have that data.


Indeed it had a few surprises. ---

Here is another that is quite interesting -- odds of child reaching 100 years of age relative to a child born by a 40 year old mom:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl ... figure/F2/

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Re: Science of Ageing

Postby wolfhnd on August 12th, 2017, 4:05 am 

Interesting study. Young mother, healthy egg equals longer life expectancy? Seems logical. Born in the fall equals longer life expectancy? Less stress at conception in mid winter? Hard to say if they have really isolated biological and environmental factors or shown how they work together.
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