Hi Hyksos,

First of all, All Classical Relativists are Absolute Relativists but won't admit to it. Relativity only works on Paper and absolutely correct answers to relativity problems only exist with absolute values inserted into the problem.

Take for example the Twin Paradox. Alice stays stationary and Bob (leaving Alice) does a journey at 0.86c out and back. For simplicity we will remove Acceleration's/Deceleration's, Gravity and Doppler Effects. This should be a pretty standard problem. Also, though not super accurate, we will assume 0.86c is relative to Alice and the 0.86c is a dilation factor of 2. (actually for a factor of 2 Bobs speed must be 0.8660254037844386c but I'm rounding out.)

Thus, when Bob returns, his clocks will show that his journey has only taken half the time that Alice's clock will indicate his journey has taken. This is a typical simple Relativity problem and note.. it uses Absolutes.

We also note that Relativity Voids itself if either party obviously exceeds Light Speed and again.. another Absolute. Many times Alice will be on a Spaceship or Planet. Does the intrinsic speed of that Spaceship or Planet matter? Not really.. for round trips.. as long as no one ever exceeds Light Speed in the problem.

If Alice has some intrinsic speed toward some stationary point in space then Bob's Direction means his clocks will be running faster or slower than Alice's clocks dependent on his direction. But the return trip for Bob to Alice makes up for gains or losses in his clocks and Relativity works just fine.

So, in most cases Relativity works fine and problems can ignore Alice's intrinsic Velocity through Space-Time.

Here's the catch:

If Alice & Bob are together and are already traveling at 0.86c towards some fixed point in space ahead then can Bob launch at a right angle from their current direction moving at 0.86c away from to Alice?

Classical Relativists have grown so accustomed to Ignoring Alice's intrinsic Speed through Space, that they have no problem seeing Bob heading out away from Alice at 0.86c at a right angle to her direction. Absolute Relativists will point out the Bob's Speed through Space will describe a path that exceeds Light Speed.

Example Below:

*Pythagorean Example*

As can be seen above, Bob has traveled a path of 364,867 Kilometers in the distance that Alice has traveled 258,000 Kilometers. Please note that to Scale: Bob is traveling faster than Light Speed and that is forbidden.

Now.. Classical Relativists might attempt to obfuscate this problem by bringing in clocks. I'm laying out this problem using a Grid that has zero velocity relative to the CMB and Light Speed distances relative to said stationary grid in flat space.

That is the fundamental difference between Classical Relativists and Absolute Relativists. Classical Relativists only see the Relative motion between Objects and Absolute Relativists see Absolute Motions Relative to the Background of Physical Space. As long as we keep all Speeds under Light Speed, both should get the same answers. If they don't, I'll lean towards Absolutism.

Absolutists don't see the Twin Paradox as a Paradox, it is just a matter of which party has moved through the longest distance in the same amount of Time. The Paradox comes about if one only looks at their Speed Differential and gives both equal footing as being called the Stationary one.. then the Math doesn't fit Reality.

So in essence Classical Relativists are Absolute Relativists, in that they give their problems using Absolute Speeds. It's the pretense that the background Aether doesn't matter that can (and does) cause problems. As pointed out above, ignoring Absolute speeds Relative to the Aether and assuming all one needs is differential Speeds is Invalid. Like the Two-Way Speed of light is a constant, I suspect the Two-Way calculations for Clock Dilation's also work (as long as Absolute Light Speed is not exceeded).

This was Einsteins Greatest Blunder BTW. Not the Cosmological Constant as we are taught but rather Special Relativity. By trying to remove the Aether.. Einstein lost a foundation to proceed into deeper Physics.

SR doesn't work in Reality. Einstein came to realize this mistake and corrected this Error with General Relativity and re-installed an Aether that he called Space-Time. You need a Foundation or nothing makes sense.

In Brian Green's Video above, the end of his presentation introduces the Block Model and treats Time, or the Passage of Time, as an Illusion. This is only true if one steps outside the Universe and see's the whole. We can't actually do this, as we are trapped within the Evolution of Time. From Inside the Universe, the past and present exists, but a moment from now doesn't Exist yet. Even if the Universe was completely deterministic and the Future can only have one way to play out, the Future doesn't exist yet.. from an inside View. Thus the Passage of Time is NOT an Illusion when viewed from inside our Reality.

Thus I prefer the Expanding Block Model to fit our perspective.

Richard Muller (a Physicist) offers an explanation for the Arrow of Time. That the Expansion of the Universe is adding New 4D Space-Time on the surface of a 4D construct. Our conscious perception of Now is because we are evolving/progressing into the New Space-Time being supplied.. thus we progress into New 3D Space and this progression has Time. Put another way, if the Universe stopped adding New Space-Time, then Time would literally stop for us. Or, we perceive the Flow of Time by being on the leading edge of the Expanding Block Model. That the Expansion of the Universe is adding New Space and also adding New Time.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.07975Ok, I'm getting tired now.. calling it quits for the day. I see Ralfcis has contributed with a Math Challenge. I don't have the time at the moment, but I am curious if Classical Relativity really produces the same answers as Absolute Relativity (assuming no one exceeds light speed). I'm thinking it will.. but I will have to postpone the challenge for later.. and yes.. I can do the Math.. but I prefer to put it into a computer program format for ease of multiple tests and perhaps adding some automatic Graphs.

Later all,

Best Regards,

Dave :^)