A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 2nd, 2017, 10:57 am 

I know; I'm also having fun here. But, at least, I'm not appearing on TV to present all this, as some do to present dark matter and dark energy. :-) :-)

Anything else?

Well, maybe.

Let’s see if we can gather additional more precise information about the universe when we consider the overall space volume drawing we used previously.

-First, by changing the basic space volume we use. Here we will choose a basic space metric within 11 and 1 hour of the previous chosen basic metric volume of the original drawing.

-Second, we will install a gluon, followed by the three generations of fundamental hadronic particles (blue) and antiparticles (red) issued by decay, where and when we have space, in the area between 7 and 5 hour.


Considering the first option, we discover that whichever basic space metric we use, each possesses the Universal Time flow because each is a center of the universe. But we’ve seen this already. On the other hand, this could mean that the space metrics Time flows are relativistic to each other even if Time has an “absolute” flow.

As for the second option, we now clearly understand that:

a) Secondary time flows, even if they seem to install themselves on top (or over) the already existing Universal Time flow, since the volumes of the fundamental hadrons are “added” space volumes to the existing expanding space volume (by jumping in the already existing universe), we clearly appreciate why secondary time flows are completely independent from the universal time flow. This “inflation” event of “overall space” is not shown on the drawing

b) Unequal time laps are shown between the possibility for each fundamental particle (generations) to transform (decay) into less massive articles. These time laps cannot be shorter than the number of basic time laps (metrics) shown on the drawing (but have to be longer as we will see).

And now, it’s essential to be aware that the white “dot” representing a gluon doesn’t have a diameter of 10^-35 meter as do have basic space metrics; it has a diameter of 10^-15 meter. So we are viewing an event completely independent from the original expanding space volume represented by the original drawing; thus confirming the independence of “birth dates”.

And we realise that the time laps between decays have to be longer that the number of duplicating “expanding” basic space metrics between the events, because the production of the each needed volumes for hadrons cannot exceed light speed. This simple fact could explain why we can observe “matter” more easily than “space”, since it takes more time to cover 10^-15 meter at light speed than it needs to cover 10^-35 meter.

This “hadronic” part of the drawing represents the evolution of the “inflating” space portion of our universe and this “inflation” occurred “within” the original expanding space volume.

As for the “time laps” between generations, it would be important to find if volumes of basic “gluon effect” (10^-15 meter) has to duplicate itself to define those time laps between decays (generations).

The “life span” of each hadronic particles should give that answer.

I’ll think about it.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 3rd, 2017, 12:40 pm 

Three generations of “time flows”.

Just to confirm that the universe always develops the process that is needed at the next evolution step (in fact, evolution simply follows the “viability steps” trajectory), there was three generations of time flows produced just before (and the same process was repeated for) the appearance of the three generations of fundamental particles; which were also related to the times flows as seen in the previous post.

Making abstraction of space production (except for the angles of flows), the Time flow is an excellent track to follow, thus understand, the universe’s evolution.

1-The Universal space time flows are issued from the Planck’s epoch single Time flow.

2-The inflation space time flows appeared with the gluon and

3-all particle time flows are issued from the “added” space inflating time flow (in fact from the gluon’s time flow); so those last flows are completely independent from the original Universal space time flows; just as inflation is completely independent from expansion.

The following drawing shows all Times flows that developed starting from Time = zero to the production of the Top and AntiTop quarks during inflation, which started at the gluon appearance just after the Big bang’s radiating period.

Note: Time flows are always installed at the angles defined by basic space metrics production: 1 – 3 – 5- 7 – 9 – 11 hrs, on in the Universal Time flows which defines the "birth dates".


This drawing also explains where the defining process of six fundamental quark particles comes from. The six inflation times flows is the process that the universe will use to define the successive number of quarks "viable": six quarks and six antiquarks. Which suggest that leptons are related strictly to the six angles of the Universal flows.

I'll have to look deeper at this last suggestion.

André Lefebvre
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Joined: 25 Jun 2015

Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 7th, 2017, 6:21 pm 

Was there asymmetry between particles at the beginning?

While writing my latest book, to be edited soon, I met a problem that I didn’t solve completely.

The problem was regarding the asymmetry we assume existed between elementary particles since, after the annihilation period, all antiparticles had disappear.

In my mind, it’s not possible that an asymmetry existed; because there’s no way that you could have had more front surfaces than back surfaces of gluons to produce quarks and antiquarks. So there has to be another explanation.

The only logical explanation I can see relies in the successive steps tried to finally attain equilibrium by “joining” three quarks or three antiquarks.

First step has to be Mesons that tries joining simultaneous quark – antiquark production; and mesons revealed unstable.

All other steps had to be tried until a stable association was obtained. One of those steps could have been “Pentaquarks” made of five quarks (but there are others that I didn't check yet).

Theory does not forbid the existence of a short-lived five-quark particle, and scientists have looked for them in the debris of particle-smasher experiments for decades. Having turned up nothing, they were beginning to think they had missed some rule of nature that bans Pentaquarks from forming.

Science has recently discover, at LHC, that exotic particles were effectively tried in the evolution of the universe. One of those exotic particles which proved to have existed, is the Charmonium-Pentaquark composed of a Proton (uud quarks) united to a Charm meson (C + anti-C quarks). The discovery of Pentaquarks was described as an "accident" and "something we’ve stumbled across" by a CERN spokesperson. And since their asymmetry research was made with, in mind, the "strong "interaction" notion, the "accident" didn't mean too much.

Nevertheless, since I don't believe in the strong "interaction", let’s consider a “Proton - C meson” Pentaquark exotic particle with its anti-Pentaquark particle.

There are two ways to look at a Pentaquark:

1)As a “whole particle”



2) As a Meson-baryon “molecule”. Which, by the way, will be the process used, a bit later, by evolution to assemble particles into molecules.


Whatever way those associations where made BEFORE "three quarks stable equilibrium" was attained, we must accept that if annihilation started while these associations existed, the question becomes:

Were those quarks protected from annihilation inside Pentaquarks?

To find the answer, we have to discover if an Anti-Pentaquark could have existed. So let’s check it out:


At first glance there’s no objection to their existence. But let’s check a bit further and put in the electric charges of each quarks.


We, then, get the following charge values:

Pentaquark = (-1/3) + (+2/3) + (+2/3) + (-2/3) + (+2/3) = 3/3 which is a Proton.

Anti-Pentaquark = (+1/3) + (-2/3) + (-2/3) + (-2/3) + (+2/3) = -3/3 which is an Anti-Proton.

The result is that those Protons and Anti-Protons annihilates and I'm still stuck with my initial question. :-(

BUT...If there was more Pentaquarks then anti-Pentaquarks produced, then, Protons would have predominated. Added to this that if a Pentaquark can be made of a Neutron + a Charm meson, we then get a surplus of Neutrons. Whatever the surplus of Pentaquarks, it does solve our problem.

And this could be the explanation of finding, exclusively, particles in our actual universe without having any asymmetry between particles and anti-particles at the beginning.

The d…. question will keep bothering me for a while; at least, until I find out if Pentaquarks were made in surplus of Anti-Pentaquarks. But that would only depend of the ratio of "colliding" elementary particles; so how on Earth can I find that?

Bof! You can't win them all; can't you?

I'll keep on looking.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 10th, 2017, 1:27 pm 

The electron mystery.

This mystery has bothered me for decades. I think I finally understand it.

Experience's results tell us that electron are produced by colliding gamma rays. And since gamma rays are the most energetic rays, we can assume that they were the first rays to appear in our universe. They would, then, be the origin of electrons.

But before going further, let’s remind ourselves that we are talking of a universe that is composed of two sorts of “space”:

1)-"expanding space" with still projected neutrinos (towards everywhere kinetic energy) and "added"

2) "inflating space" with decaying quarks (toward a center point oriented kinetic energy) that has become, today, stopped "inflated space".

So let’s have another look at the electron production.


Here we have our gamma-rays on a crash course. Both rays are traveling at light-speed; so when they hit, both their trajectory will be stopped. But they both are composed of up and down motion which are their waves. Let’s see what happens:


Since gamma-rays are exclusively up and down motion, traveling at light-speed, when light-speed is blocked, all that is left are the up and down motions. And since an up motion cannot join with a down motion when the trajectory motion is stopped, they are side-tracked; one goes up, the other one goes down.

So, what did actually happen? The logical question is: What can those up and down motions do when their trajectories are blocked, and they are side-tracked?

The only thing I can imagine is that they each become a small quantum of energy and transform their up or down movements into rotating motions, one contrary to the other. One becomes negative (electron) while the other one becomes positive (positron). Those two quantum of energy become simply small “balls” of energy motion, rotating, and they both are projected away from each other because the energy of their blocked wave translation cannot just disappear.

Their rotation gives them a minimal amount of mass energy which is not directed toward their center but is swirling around in a "blurred" volume with a non-defined center. This non-defined center makes them non-solid particles, a kind of ghost-like particles.

Now we have to remember that the origin of those electrons is a gamma ray which is produced by neutrinos traveling at almost light speed. This fact means that they are not related to gluons. Which then means that they do not integrate a motion toward a center; meaning they don’t have a center of gravity. So they do have a bit of “mass energy” (confined kinetic energy) which defines a “density of energy” in the electromagnetism of the universe, but are, in reality, related to the “flat space” portion of the universe which attach them to the Universal time flow (neutrino flow). Their “energy density” has to be considered as a “pressure” just as the overall decreasing “pressure” of expanding energy on the basic space production “acceleration”. But the “pressure” of an electron is “confined” in a “blurred” volume of space. Furthermore, we can assume that the "density pressure" is related to electromagnetism. Which we will have to study a bit more carefully in a future post.

In other words, Taus, Muons, and electrons (leptons) are particles related to “expansion space”, while quarks are particles related to “inflation space”. As for Bosons, being quanta of energy, they are simply related to the "kinetic energy" of our universe.

Here is a drawing of an electron. You’ll agree that saying it is a cloud, is an excellent analogy.


It is a “blurred” particle because it doesn’t have a defined center of gravity. But it has a bit of mass energy (pressure) since it is “confined kinetic energy”.

Naturally, it’s the density of equilibrated energy inside that cloud, which decides whether the quanta of energy is a Tau, a Muon or an electron. And we already know that energy "density" is related to "time flows".

Now if we install the electrons on their corresponding Time flow, which is the Big bang’s on the next drawing, we finally can “see” the superposition of different particles “Time flows” situating universe's both spaces composition: the "expanding space" versus "inflation space". It would be fun to compare the status of electrons related to the Big bang's time flow with the "flavor" characteristic of the "weak force", and the quarks related to the "Gluon's time flow" with the "color" characteristic of the "strong force". But I don't believe in forces so I won't loose time on it.


And we can also assume that we will find “free electrons” in “expanding space”.

I think that we are getting quite an improved "overall" comprehension of our universe to what is actually available; don't you?

André Lefebvre
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Joined: 25 Jun 2015

Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 11th, 2017, 10:53 am 

Looking back at my last drawing, I just realized that electrons, being on the Universal Time flow, it becomes inevitable that they are always joined (or coupled) with neutrinos which are the "expression" of that flow (I should have draw neutrinos on the same red flows as electrons).

And it is just as normal that the neutrino adopts the characteristic of the electron, muon or tau involved.

In fact, it doesn't "adopt" anything; it always depends of the environment's energy density. In other words, it follows the Time factor. Taus, muons and electrons don't "live" at the same epoch (density).

I'll continue to scrutinize that drawing for a while.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 14th, 2017, 1:44 pm 

By the way, ti whom it may interest, my new book "The birth and the life of...our universe is online (free) at:

https://fondationlitterairefleurdelysli ... press.com/

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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on November 18th, 2017, 3:38 pm 

I don't know if this post will clear things more, but we have to go through it anyway.

Energy or duplication?

We have seen that:

-The duplication of the primary space metrics characterizes the expansion of the universe.

-This expansion of the universe accelerates because of the gradual diluting energy density in the environment; which decelerates the flow of the Universal Time. This happens because speed has a limit which is light speed.

But is this the reality?

Because, we have to ask ourselves if dilution of energy in the overall universe, is an “effective” asset to the expansion of the universe since, simple increase of basic metrics duplication is quite enough to explain this acceleration.

Let’s see the implications:

1) Energy provokes the basic metrics to duplicate. So energy should be the real cause of existing space in which it dilutes.

2) Or, energy simply dilutes along the Time flow trajectory. So, then, energy would solely be the cause for Time’s expression.

Number 1) isn’t acceptable anymore, since energy started producing “Time” BEFORE space appeared. So the energy’s “effect” is on the "Time flow" and not on the “space production”. Which eliminates no 1) as a diluting factor and supports no 2).

We know that the result (the “work”) of energy is “motion”. The first motion ever produced was a “Time motion” (before even space appeared) rather than a “space motion”. In fact, space itself doesn’t have any “proper motion” because the overall space is the result of duplication of its basic metric (in this sense we join the scientists who say that “expansion” isn’t a “motion”).

Which “basic metric” is produced by the “total energy’s motion” (light speed) applied to a “Time length” of 10^-43 sec, which simply becomes the “birth date” of “space”, and of the "present state" of Time itself. Which would mean that before the Big bang, Time increased speed until reaching "light speed" that "froze" it in a "present state".

The fact is that basic “Time” is uni-dimensional; which means that it doesn’t have any “length”. So the notion of “Time length” relates exclusively to the “space basic metric” and not to “Time” itself; since the real nature of Time is “spaceless nor distenceless”. This would mean that the energy’s dilution is not related to “space production” but to uni-dimensional Time diffusion, meaning “Time flow”.

So dilution of energy is related to “Time flow” and not at all to “space expansion”. This “fact” would explain that energy density differs at different “moments” on the Time flow, while being equilibrated at each of those different “moments”, in the overall space of the universe. Then the density of energy, when related to “motion”, becomes a “Time factor” instead of a “space factor”. And this confirms that “gravitation” is related to the “Time factor” as well, since density augments as you approach, on its “Time flow”, the “birth date” of an “event”.

All this tells us that to understand “energy”, we have to consider it on the “time factor” rather than on the “space factor”.

Finally, all the “dynamic” of the universe is concentrated in the “Time flows”.

So we must now understand how all this relates to space?

The answer is that the “Universal Time flow” doesn’t relate to space in any way, because the Universal Time flow is manifested at light speed; which means that it belongs to a constant “present state” of the universe (to which, energy wise, belongs the photon).

The “past” itself appeared strictly when “less than light speed” was manifested. And we have dated this moment at 10^-43 sec after Time = Zero. This event resulted in the “appearance” of “space” which, then, started its personal “Time flow”.

So now, what we have is a “no length” Time flow manifested before the Big bang, and a “basic length” Time flow afterward. It is important to “grasp” that this last Time flow is related to Universal “space-time” and not to Universal Time itself. Once more we have to “see” a difference between “space” and “Time”.

And then, appeared “mass energy” (produced by gluons) that blocked the “flowing of time” at a certain “moment”, giving a “birth date” to this “blocked moment”, when its personal “time” started “flowing”.

All those “birth dates” appeared at certain moments on the “Time arrow” which, all, started different “Time flows”.

And each “birth date” was related to a specific event, whether it was a “phase transition”, a quantum of energy or a “mass energy volume”.

In this regard, Time becomes the only possible thread we can follow to clearly understand our universe; because, not only does it separate Time from space, but it also isolates “located mass-energy” from “universal kinetic energy”

Unfortunately, scientists don’t agree on “Time’s existence”; or at least, don't consider its importance.
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