## A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

This is not an everything goes forum, but rather a place to ask questions and request help for developing your ideas.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Shape of the total universal volume

The second volume of space is the one that gives the universe its “shape”:

Because of the disposition of the space volumes, the universe possesses a polygonal shape. And it’s also easy to see that “Y” is shorter than “X”.

After 4 space volume reproductions (4 x (10*-43 s) the difference between the “perpendicular” diameters is, already, quite significant.

The proportion is, as shown on the next drawing, 10 volumes high x 11 volumes wide = 0.91%
Or a decreasing "ratio" of 1 basic space volume every 4 (10*-43 sec); which would make it "progressive".

If not progressive, this would mean that when the universe was 13 billion light years in horizontal diameter, its perpendicular diameter was 11.83 billion light years.

Or if you prefer, its “horizontal” radius was 6.5 billion light years while its “vertical” radius was 5.915 light years; which is still 0.91%.

Just for fun, let’s check the Earth’s orbit:

Aphelion = 1, 0167 UA and Perihelion = 0, 98329 UA which equals = 0.967%

It wasn’t fun at all.

So what would be the shape of our universe?

According to space volumes distribution, the shape of the universe should look like this, or similar:

Now here is what “Space-time” is all about.

1) All which is in red relates to “Time” while the rest is “space”.

2) All “balls” that have the same color (in corridors) have the same “birth date”. Space-wise” that represent the same “energy density”.

3) “Time-wise” all “balls” have their specific “energy density”. These “densities” are “subdivisions” of the space “corridors” energy densities”; like, for example, electronic shells containing “sub-shells”, which are “atomic orbitals”.

4) The “horizon” length of the universe is longer than its perpendicular length; making the universe a somewhat “flatten” dodecahedron.

And the following is the “work” done by the two orientations of “kinetic energy” in the universe:

So what do we see?

1) The “magnetism” is always perpendicular to “electronism”; which makes the whole universe electromagnetic.

2) The “gravitational effect” is always perpendicular to expansion.

3) Because of these two factors, all “fields” (space volumes), in the universe, possesses the same volume “ratio”.

4) Which means that the “gravitational fields” of “nucleus” (fields), “electronic shells” (fields), planets (fields), stars (fields) and Galaxies (fields) possess the same global “shape”.

5) And they are all “shorter” than electronism, expansion and “universal” time.

So let’s check the shape of a galaxy field.

We’ll do it, first, with the Crab nebula (from Hubble telescope) because we can compare a few fields inside it:

The crab nebula is the result of a “supernova” that “exploded in 1054 to 1055 of the present era. It is now centered by a “pulsar”.

The bigger circles are copies of each other’s. I draw the bottom one and copied it to place at the top, using the center Pulsar to join both. We can see that they are mirror images of each other.

The smallest circle would be the shape of the galaxy when it exploded in a supernova in 1054. It was observed by a Chinese astronomer.

Since the two bigger ovals contain all “matter” that was expelled, I figure that those space volumes are related to “gravitational fields”; which instructs me to install the expansion energy flow, perpendicularly to them. That is where I’ve put the double headed red arrow. On the universal clock they would indicate the 3 hr and 9 hr.

Now let’s have a look at NGC 1672:

We get a good idea of the size and shape of its “gravitational field”.

I couldn’t discern if the “flattening” process of the "universal field" was “stable” or progressive; but it seems as if it’s slightly progressive.
Andrex
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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

The energy notion

I was saying previously: « It would be great to know exactly the real nature of "energy"; wouldn't it?”.

So here is what it has been coming to, up to now:

First:

A) The energetic speed of expansion = c (light-speed) = 1 (value of universal energy's intensity)

B) Space production = (space volume’s Diameter) x 3 x (10*-43 sec)

Or (D x 3) x (10*-43 sec)

Or 3D x 10*-43 sec. = 1

Second:

Observations:

« Energy » is not quantisable. Energy isn’t a « thing » that produces other « things ». Energy is strictly a simple “state of being”; a unique intensity value of “energetic state” of being. Its intensity, not being quantisable, we can quantise its “density” diluted in a volume, by measuring its “wavelength’s vibration”.

“Energy” isn’t a “force” either. It’s a “state of action”; or more precisely, an “invariant active state”. The only “value”, possible to give it, is: “One”; the “non-active state” being: “Zero”.

0) At the Big-bang this unique invariant “energy state” manifested itself and started a “motion” in every directions, producing “distances” and extending “time”.

1) Which means that the “universal energy” is kinetic energy that becomes the “cause” for “creation” of “space” (distances in all directions) and “time” (linear towards the “future”).

2) This energy is everywhere, at always its constant “full” intensity, inside each basic space volumes, “created” at every 10*-43 sec interval periods (it takes 10*-43 second to travel 10*-35 meter).

3) Its “motion” possesses a “flat” trajectory (straight line) in all directions. It cannot be “curved” since it doesn’t encounter any obstruction on its path. It, thus, creates “flat” space and “straight trajectory” progressing time.

4) This invariant “energetic state” dilutes itself gradually in the constant increasing “space”, but never loses any “intensity”. At every “basic space volume” produced, starts a new additional “time flow” that joins the already existing universal “time flow”.

5) The “action state” called “energy” possesses, intrinsically, all slower “speed” motions, from zero to light-speed “c”, which is its “invariant” maximum speed intensity. It also possesses all the “dates” (present moments) defined on its progressing “universal time flow” (the time arrow).

6) These different gradual “speeds” composing the maximum speed” are what is successively diluted by expansion, from “max speed/energy” to “zero speed/energy”.

7) And since the “production” of “basic space volumes” constantly increases every 10*-43 sec period, corridor’s space volumes gets bigger at every “space production” around the preceding “space volume”. Which gives those corridors a unique “time date” and “density”.

8) However, inside a “gravitational field”, the expanding motion is blocked; which means that every “orbital corridors” possesses its own “size” and “energy density”. This density of kinetic energy is what defines the “speed” allowed inside each corridors. And since the density increases towards the center of gravity, an object falling towards the center of gravity, in a gravitational field, increases its “speed” to the pro-rata of the environment’s density.

9) This provokes the event we observe with a rocket ship or satellite that doesn’t have enough speed to exit the “gravitational field”. It becomes “confined” inside the corridor which energy density corresponds to its proper “speed”.

A) Time is not a « reproduction » phenomenon; it’s a « linear motion » event towards the “future”, in all direction, but from a unique starting point in the past; further back than “space”. “Space” appeared when “time” was already 10*-43 sec old; and it expended from everywhere towards everywhere. “Time” is a “present moment” that travels at light-speed; which freezes that “present moment” at a lapse of 10*-43 second for each basic distances of 10*-35 meter.

B) This 10*-43 second is thus represented by a “basic space volume” of 10*-35 meter in diameter.

C) Each of those “basic space volumes” possesses a « birthdate ». Thus any straight trajectory towards a center of gravity, is composed of “present point moments” of 10*-35 meter in diameter, having a “specific birthdate”, which are situated gradually farther in “time”. This defines a time flow towards the “past” to a “time trajectory” inside a “gravitational field”.

D) Consequently, each of these regressing “10*-35 meter” represents a progressing kinetic energy density towards the “past”. Which explains why the more we recede from a center of gravity, the more time extends which we see as “slowing down”.

André Lefebvre
Andrex
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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

The only solution to every problems is the “Time factor”:

The next drawing presents the expansion of space through time which shows the decreasing kinetic energy density

The following drawing presents expansion of “space” at each “present moments”; which eliminates the “Time factor” with the decreasing kinetic energy density.

By imagining trajectories, in both these drawings, makes us understand that “curved” trajectories can only be a “time factor” result, caused by the increasing energy density towards the “past”, slowing down the velocity of a trajectory.

And since the “speed” of an object is what dictates the “falling” procedure towards a center of gravity, the slower the object gets, by obstructing increasing density, the more it “falls” toward that center.

But most importantly, we can also realize that the “deepness” of space, or the third “dimension” as seen usually, is strictly “Time related”, if not the “Time flow” itself.

And if so, this would mean that “space” is a “bi-dimensional motion” (a surface) expanding through the “Time-linear-motion” towards the “future”. Giving the “reality” three dimensions, exclusively, instead of four, as actually thought.

This would eliminate, in equations, the time dimension as a 4th dimension and would restrict the “gravitational effect” to the “deepness”, meaning to the “Time flow”.

This, being a “fact”, would be quite an achievement for Occam’s razor and bring a completely different “view” to observations; but what would a drawing show?

This would be the ultimate concept of the universe, as being a dynamic state of kinetic energy, composed of a surface expanding “space” (where we stand to observe the past) traveling through “Time”, towards the “future”.

We can see that all motions, involved in the drawing of such a “dynamic universe”, are “centrifugal”, and express the “Time factor’s” reality.

Simple logic tells us that a “centrifugal motion” cannot exists if its “counterpart” doesn’t exists (just as “blackness”, which is a total absence of colors, cannot exists without the existence of “whiteness” that is the presence of all colors).

Which explains the existence of a “centripetal motion” inside the same “Time factor” of the universe dynamism’s. This “centripetal motion” is the “effect” we observe in a “gravitational field”.

And it is a “local event” because its “centripetal size”, in the “Time factor”, was limited to the size of the universe dynamism’s at the “epoch” it appeared inside it.

But what surprises me more, is that I can now understand the "nature" of "energy".

Energy is not a "thing" that does "work"; it's a general state of invariant dynamism that manifests constantly producing "space-time".

This "invariant dynamism" can be locally "excited" spreading, towards everywhere, invisible vibrations (waves) which, when obstructed, releases its "excited dynamism" in quanta of energy which "motion" can be observed.

By the way, it's also evident that all we can "see" is "motions", since photons are quanta of a traveling waves energy, meaning quanta of kinetic energy; even though we imagine "referentials" as "motionless" for quantifying "speed". Absolute "stillness" is impossible in a "dynamic state universe".

As for "absolute motion", it's now evident that it is quite impossible to difference it from the "absolute stillness" that cannot exists; but a "present moment" frozen in time leaves the only possibility of existence as the result of "absolute motion" which is "lightspeed".

There is still a lot of thinking left to be done.
Andrex
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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Electromagnetism

Further “research” on the implication of my “gravitational theory”, brings slightly different views from the official view of the reality; most of the time it brings precision to it.

Geometrically, the electromagnetic “space” (universal wave volume) has a shorter magnetism length than its perpendicular electronism. This is cause by the reproducing process of basic space volumes called “expansion of the universe”. It means that if the whole universe was a single electromagnetic "wave", its wavelength would be longer than its wave hights.

Electronism, being the “expansion energy flowing state” (wavelength), could then be more “space intense” (powerful) than the “magnetic state energy flow” (wave-hights) containing less space “energetic state” volumes. This could give a possibility to the existence of the "EM drive” of Roger Shawyer. But, either way, the “expansion energy flow” being 3D, while "magnetism state" is 2D; explains the constant continuation of “space expansion” and the splitting of both gluon’s faces from one another.

The geometric description follows here.

Time clock of electromagnetic flows:

Drawing to the right is the energy flowing state, universal clock.

Drawing to the left is the physical result of “basic space volume” reproduction (expansion). This result shows a difference in length between the X and Y perpendicular dimensions.

But the “magnetism state flow” annuls itself, even if it accumulates, at the center; while the “expansion energetic flowing state” starts from it.

Note that an "energetic state" that is not "excited" isn't observable.

The universe (“space”, or “universal field”) is electromagnetic; which means that, when excited, it produces electromagnetic vibrations. And a vibration is a two contrary direction “motion”.

Classically, electromagnetic radiation (the far field) consists of electromagnetic waves, which are (excited) synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields (a vibration) that propagate at the speed of light, which, in a vacuum, is commonly denoted “c”. When not excited, it is invisible and even non-discernible. It is either excited at the source (by an incoming energy state “unit”) or at the end (by an obstacle).

But what is that “near field” between the emitter and the wave itself?

The near field is the “distance” needed to a wave, in order to “obtain” its stable length’s structure. It is a three parts “process”.

The first part of the process is unifying the “overlapped” sideways vibrations, inside the “space field” separated by the “energetic state flow” (translation motion).

The second part of the process is unifying the up and down vibrations, which are still separated by the “energetic state flow”. But I’m not certain that this really occurs. You’ll see why further down.

The third part is the normal “electromagnetic waves” which becomes the “universal energetic flow” composed of “electronism” plus “magnetism”, which aren’t shown in that part of the drawing. This might indicate an error in the official electromagnetic wave “notion”.

But my first question is: Why was the vibrations overlapping at the start?

If we use the “universal clock”, can we figure it out?

First we have to consider the two sides of the gluon’s surface (in green). Those “sides” cannot overlap since the “expanding energy state” separated them. But the two secondary “expanding energy flows” (11-5 hrs and 1-7 hrs) each affect one face (side) of the gluon, by spreading them on opposite sides of the “electronic field”.

Second, we have to remember that a gluon is a boson which can “accumulate” in the same “energetic state”. So these “states” have to be “overlapping”. Which confirms that the first and second part of the “process” is related to “magnetism”. The fact is that the unification of overlaps is executed by the gluon being spread through the whole “space volume” by the "energetic state" affecting both sides of its surface.

Third, we now can understand the structure of the electromagnetic “field”, composed of one “full electronic space sphere” occupied by two “magnetic fields”.

This “full electronic space sphere” is the “wave-front sphere” described following his drawing.

Note: The red line tells that electromagnetic waves are oriented in all directions, while the magnetism is oriented toward the center of the sphere (electromagnetic field) always perpendicular to the direction.

This drawing shows that the “magnetic wavelength” is twice shorter than the “electronic field’s wavelength”. If it wasn’t, it wouldn’t be possible to have successive “half magnetic fields” vibrations; we would get a “full magnetic field” that would simply duplicates without any “vibrations”.

But then, we have to take in consideration that one of the "magnetic wavelength" is of an antimatter particle (ex:anti-quark); so when, afterward, antimatter was annihilated, the "particle wavelength" (quark) might have taken the whole length of the electromagnetic wave, while still vibrating, and produce what is observed today as the electromagnetic wave. So I made an error by doubting the official information.

The “wave-front” of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a light bulb) is a sphere; which is the “electromagnetic field”. If so, that “sphere” is flattened at the poles because it is “space”; meaning that the “wave-hights” is shorter than the “wavelength”. Which could also means a difference in “speed vibration” (intensity) of both “fields”.

Furthermore, whatever the “size” of the “electromagnetic field” we observe, it is this "size" that defines the “wavelength” we are considering. This confirms that a “wavelength” is a “metric factor” of the universal “electromagnetic energy state”. Improving our interpretation that wavelengths are not “things”; they are strictly different “states” of the “space” electromagnetism.

And since electromagnetism appeared when “space” had a volume of 10*-15 meter in diameter, at 10*-36 sec. this is what the event was:

And electromagnetic “space” continued to expand as followed:

Producing what we observe:

With the “space sphere” at the “wave-front”:

So, what happens when this “wave-front” encounters an obstacle (an object)?

We know that a photon never disintegrates, while a collision of two gamma rays produces a “positron” plus an “electron”.

We also understand that, what is “blocked” on the drawing, is the translation “motion” of the wave.

This would mean that the photon “energy field unit” is a simple electromagnetic “kinetic particle”; because no positron or electron particle appears in this case.

Let’s try to precise the drawing:

This is presented in the visible waves of the electromagnetic spectrum; but the result is the same in all wavelengths.

My question is: Even if the translational motion is blocked, since energy cannot disappear, where did this kinetic energy “state” go?

The only answer is, that it was transformed into “heat”; a caloric energy state that is absorbed by the collided obstruction.

Officially, “the energy of an individual photon is quantized and is greater for photons of higher frequency. This relationship is given by Planck's equation E = hν, where E is the energy per photon, ν is the frequency of the photon, and h is Planck's constant. A single gamma ray photon, for example, might carry ~100,000 times the energy of a single photon of visible light”.

Like I already described in a previous post, I don’t agree with this affirmation. The photon’s intensity which means the “energy state of a photon”, is homogeneous through all the universe. The difference in its “effect” is the “frequency” of its “impacts”; which lasts as long as the source is excited (meaning: emitting vibrations).

Which results in the following:

Photons (electromagnetism energy state units) have a “full spin”; which is a regular rotation of 360 degrees (“half spins” are for particles that need a rotation of 720 degrees to come back at its original position. So, since a normal complete rotation is 360 degrees, those particles are valued having “half spins”. Funny kind of logic, but that's mathematics logic).

Gluon (Magnetism state field) also has a “full spin”.

Two objects with “full” spin, which come in relation, does so at a 60 degree angle to each other and acquire a “half” spin.

Now, we can presume that two objects coming in relation has to use the “magnetism factor”; because the “energy state flow” would repel them.

So, we’ll draw two “universal clocks” that have naturally a “full spin” and put them in relation to see what’s comes out of it. But we must remember the “energy inserting law” that demands the "insertion" to be at the 12 hr:

So the total field produced by those two “universal clock” (or object) has to sum two rotations of 360 degrees of the objects which gives it a “mathematical” half spin of 720 degrees. I say “mathematical” because a rotation is related to “360 degree angles”; not to "sums" of angles, or “speed”, or “length”. Which indicates that the “spin” difficulty is a “mathematical concept” difficulty; not a “geometrical concept” or a “visual concept” difficulty.

I’m tired; so we’ll come back to all this another time. Hope you liked it.
Andrex
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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

I forgot to mention that the 60 degree angles "relation" of joined objects is what we have in the previous drawing.

And it is, strictly, the consequence of the universal "energy inserting law" that demands the "insertion" to be at the 12 hr.
Andrex
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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

The “energetic state” notion

I have been restraining myself until today, but I have to do it.

I would like to try clarifying what I mean by the “universal field” being simply an “energetic state”.

The best example I could find yet was “water in a pool”.

Water, in a “pool field”, is in a “wetness state” just as the universe in the “universal field” is in an “energetic state”.

Whatever the size of the pool, the “wetness state” stays the same; it’s “wetness” is an invariant. You cannot be more or less “wet"; you’re “wet” or you’re “dry”. And the water in a big pool is just as wet as the water in a small pool.

The same logic applies to the “energetic state”; whatever the size of the “universal field”, its “intensity” stays the same; it is also an “invariant”. You cannot be “half-energetic”; you’re “energetic” or you’re “static”.

Furthermore, just as you cannot quantise the “wetness degree” of a water drop, you cannot quantise the “energetic intensity” of a portion of space; all portions are identical to the whole “universal volume” in the “universal field”, just as the water drop is identical to the whole water volume in the pool.

And if the water, in a “pool field”, changes its “wetness state” for a “dryness state”, the water stops existing. It doesn’t exist anymore.

Once again, it’s the same with the universe; if the universe changes its “energetic state” for a “static state”, the universe stops existing. It doesn’t exist anymore.

This is why the universe is simply an “energetic state field”; the same as a filled pool is a simple “wetness state pool field”.

Now here are the consequences of that “energetic state”:

Being in an “invariant energetic state”, gives certain “characteristics” to the “universal field”.

A- Its “energetic state” manifesting motion is at the maximum “speed” possible to exists; but since this “speed” is manifested by a “field” that is surrounded by “nothingness”, it cannot express a “translation” motion. It can only express a reproduction process called “expansion”. It's in this sense that "expansion" isn't a "motion".

Furthermore, since it is expanding in all 360o directions in a “straight trajectory”, the universal “energetic state” cannot rotate either (because the expansion trajectories wouldn’t be “straight” anymore); so all possible motions for its maximum “speed” are “frozen”. Which install the expanding “energetic state” into an expanding “potential energetic state”. It is “present” but its motion manifestation are strictly “potential”.

B- “Speed” being a “distance” traveled during a “time lapse”, means that both “distance” and “time lapse” are “frozen”.

C- This “lightspeed” was liable to manifests itself, only after the maximum “energy state” was attained. And even if we don’t know what “energy” really is, just as we don’t know what “wetness” really is, we can understand that this “energetic state” had to accumulate “energy” starting from a “static state”, in order to reach its maximum “energetic state”. Just as the “wetness state” had to accumulate “humidity” starting at “dryness”, to reach the maximum “humidity state” called the “wetness state”.

D- So, all this reveals another characteristic of the “universal field”, which is that the “universal energetic state” is actually a “potential energetic state”. It exists but we cannot “observe” any motion manifestation. We can’t even observe its “expanding” process.

E- We have now attained the first evolution “level” of the “universal energetic state”. But this first “level” is not electromagnetic yet. We’ve seen that electromagnetism will appear only when the surface gluon proto-particle installs itself perpendicularly to the “expanding process” of the “universal field”, when it had attain a diameter of 10^-15 meter.

F- This new addition of the gluon made the “universal field” a “composite universal field”; and this “composite field” was now in a “universal electromagnetic state field”. This new “status” of the universal field didn’t change its “potential energetic state”. Its “motion manifestation” was still unobservable.

G- But something had been change by the addition of a “perpendicular gluon field”; a new kind of potential “motion” was now possible to be expressed, which was successive up & down translation motion joined perpendicularly to a sideways translation motion. This new kind of motion is called: a vibration.

H- This new motion transfers itself from the “potentiality state” to the “manifesting state”, exclusively when the “universal energetic potential state” is “excited”.

I-Exciting” the “universal energetic state” became possible after the expanding process attacked each sides of the gluon “surface field particles”. Both faces of the particles were ripped from one another, producing two massive field volumes. The simple presence of those small massive "fields" in the “universal electromagnetic state field” was enough to excite the “electromagnetic field”.

J- The “excitement” was provoked by the “new created potential motion” which could be expressed in successive “up-down-sideways motions”. We can visualize the event happening into a flowing river. If you put a big rock in the “water flow”, water will react to that presence by forming waves in front of the obstacle. The same thing happens when a massive particles stands in the “electromagnetic flowing potential energetic state”. But since this flowing potentiality is in all directions, the wave production is all around the obstructing massive particle. And the new created electromagnetic wave is carried by the potential flowing motion.

K- Being carried by a “potential energetic flowing motion” prevents us from “seeing” the wave itself. But when this invisible energetic wave hits another obstacle, the wave is “blocked” and has to release its “kinetic electromagnetic energetic state” that we, then, can “observe” as a quantum of energetic state called a photon.

L- This quantum of “energetic state” is an expression of the “total universal energetic state”. It is not a “portion” of the “universal energetic state”, because the “universal state” cannot be a “composite” of “states”; it’s a “unique state”.

This is what makes important the exact understanding signification of the word “state”.

Ouf! This was quite an exercise of my English capabilities. Hope it was clear enough.
Andrex
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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Let's try to focus a bit more on added precision:

QCD

One of the great discoveries in Physics during the 20th century was the existence of Quarks.

Quarks are considered as “particles”; but, in fact, are punctual mass-energy quanta. Which means that they are the composites of “massive particles”. This discovery finally confirmed that “particles” are indeed “energy”.

Quarks are given “fractional values” because the proton they “compose” is conventionally given the value of “one” (1).

Personally, I don’t believe that the universe, or “nature”, had the possibility to learn mathematics; so I don’t really adopt the exclusivity of mathematics explanation, even if it can discern different quantification which, most of the time. brings complexity to our understanding.

So let’s see how quarks existence can be present in my understanding of the universal “creation” history.

At “Time equal zero”, the uni-dimensional energy potentiality started to manifest by using the only possible “motion” available in a “non-spatial” state. It started to rotate on itself producing a bi-dimensional surface caused by the centrifugal effect.

The normal centripetal effect followed right afterward. Both “effects” started to accumulate energy exponentially by the tangential acceleration at the circumference of this bi-dimensional surface. Naturally, the difference in intensity of each “effects” grew in conformity.

When the centripetal effect couldn’t hold to the centrifugal effect, they were ripped from one another.

The “energy quanta” representing the centrifugal effect where projected in all directions creating the first “space volume”, while the “energy quanta” representing the centripetal effect recoiled on themselves, producing a new surface which started to rotate in the contrary direction of the previous surface.

Both “effects” had reach the “energy state” producing light-speed. Which means that the “centrifugal quanta” projection at light-speed instantly resulted in a “space volume” having the diameter length of the distance covered at light-speed (10*-35 meter) while the recoiled “centripetal quanta” started to rotate at light-speed.

At this speed, the centripetal quanta needed only one single rotation to extend at the 10*-35 meter diameter, making it able to appear in the new created expanding volume.

At this moment the expanding space volume had reach a diameter of 10*-15 meter which became the “size” affected by the 10*-35 meter centripetal “energy quanta’s” surface. And the centrifugal effect “energy quanta” kept on expanding.

The surface centripetal “energy quanta” are what we call “gluons”. We cannot observe “gluons” as “definite particles” but we can observe them as “virtual particles”; because, being “surfaces” in rotation, they appear and disappear twice during each of their rotation.

On the other hand, we can observe events occurring inside this 10*-15 meter size of their “effect”. This is where “quarks” will eventually appear.

Expanding centrifugal quanta in all directions, affected both sides of each confined 10*-35 meter centripetal quantum surfaces, ripping those sides from one another, weakening each of their resistance on one side.

Having one side weakened, each split centripetal surfaces recoiled on themselves by their own energy, producing a volume of “centripetal energy quantum” which are called “quarks”.
Let’s have a few drawings starting with the “virtual” centripetal surface:

As we can see, each had two rotations; one vertical and one horizontal. The splitting result of the gluon surface produced two split surfaces having one vertical contrary rotations. The vertical rotation represented their “helicity rotation” while the horizontal rotation made them “virtual particles”. These combine rotations are what we observe as their “spin”.

When both split surfaces recoiled, they resulted in two contrary rotating energy quanta volumes (quarks) having contrary “spins”.

They stopped being “virtual” and became “defined” existing energy quanta.

Their contrary “spins” permitted them to unify three by three which produced Protons and antiprotons:

It becomes quite simple to understand that the universe is in an “energetic state” which produces “motions” that results in whatever we can observe today, according to the "field" the motion occurs.

André Lefebvre.
Andrex
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