A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

This is not an everything goes forum, but rather a place to ask questions and request help for developing your ideas.

Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 27th, 2018, 11:55 am 

Rotational process.

Well, since everything has a carbon base structure, I guess it’s time to see how that structure came to be.

We will use what we already know about energy, meaning that it enters at 12 o’clock while the “object” is rotating in a clockwise direction.

Image

I didn't draw the first incoming Carbon atom at 12 o'clock; but you can see its presence in the second drawing at 2 o'clock.

You must remember that all the energy inside a deformed "volume" of space-time (as in an atom) is located at the center of gravity which is solely responsible of the object's traveling.
That center of gravity (here of the Carbon atom) is the "incoming energy" in the formation of molecules.

And after four completions of "passive energy states” (pair hours) going through the 12 o’clock hour, we get the basic Carbon structure for Nucleobases.

Note that the third drawing already provided the basic Carbon structure for Amino-acids.

We could even say that the second drawing supplies the basic Carbon structure for Glycine, but that is not possible if energy always enter at 12 o’clock because the Nitrogen atom would have to enter at 10 o’clock (see previous glycine drawing).
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 27th, 2018, 3:06 pm 

Rotation centers

Here is another point I should make, which becomes obvious.

If you look at the next drawing:

Image

You can see the difference when we have a "barycenter" with when we do not.

On the left drawing, without the barycenter of a cluster, the rotation center is the Carbon atom standing at the junction of the "Y" shape (left); as for the right drawing, the rotation center is evidently, the "barycenter".

This changes the place where all information stand.

I noted that all "nucleobases" possess a cluster with a barycenter.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 29th, 2018, 9:37 am 

Additional note:

It might be a bit early to point it out, but let's note that the "information" I keep talking about is transported through the "flowing" of electronic-energy-units through "Tidal effects".

This might become very relevant eventually.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 29th, 2018, 11:10 am 

So let’s see what we are dealing with in cells structure.

It’s obvious that all we’ve seen already has to be involved.

This means: “gravitational effect “, “Tidal effect”, flowing of electronic-units (electrons), incoming of “mass-energy” (center of gravities) at the 12o’clock position, and installation of these “mass-energy”, first from 12hr to 6hr, then to 8hr-2hr, -4hr and 10hr, successively in molecules.

This takes care of the “mass-energy” (centers of gravity) inside molecules; but their “coming in” means that these “mass-energy” also possess “kinetic energy. What happens to this kinetic energy when “mass-energy” is installed, since it cannot simply disappear?

The answer is simple when we consider the universal “Time clock”.

We know that kinetic energy is “Time energy”; so it simply follows the “Time arrows” of the “Universal Time clock”; and since “Time arrows” are always perpendicular to “gravitational effects”…

a) The "kinetic energy" of “mass-energy, incoming at 12 o'clock, is released through the 3hr “Time arrow”

b) The 2hr "kinetic energy" goes through the 5hr Time arrow

c) The 4 hr "kinetic energy" exits through the 7hr time flow

d) The 6hr "ke" goes through the 9hr Time flow

e) The 8 hr "ke", through the 11 hr Time flow

f) And the 10 hr "ke" exits via the 1 hr Time flow.

But the answer, simple as it is, doesn’t simplify the results in afterward evolution.

I agree that “flowing-electronic-units” (electrons) through molecules distributes “information” through the cells; but what role does the expelled kinetic energy (neutrinos) from atoms plays in molecules?

The only answer possible is that it makes molecules rotate, and we’ve seen that this rotation of molecules is responsible for distributing incoming “mass-energy” on each pair hours that passes through the “fixed” universal 12hr position.

And, afterward, what could be the following implication of "kinetic energy"?

The characteristic of kinetic energy indicates "where" we should direct our attention at the cells level.

It could be kinetic energy that is responsible for “splitting” proteins”, amino-acids, and even DNA.

We will try to stay attentive at that possibility while continuing our analysis.

And I still have to find any correlation between "information" and “barycenters”. This, also, has to implicate "kinetic energy".
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 30th, 2018, 11:59 am 

Possible link orientation for research

A few “posts ago” I noted that:

The first sub-division we have to remember would be that non-living "things" are related to centers of gravity (falling effect) while living organisms are related to "tidal effects".”

And since “Tidal effects” are responsible for information distribution, I will permit myself to notify a possible “path for research” which would be the evolution of information “distribution.

The “climax” of this evolution has to be information propelled in neurones by electronic energy pulses' (electrons).

Which means that there has to be a continuity from “Tidal effect” distribution at the molecule level and the neuronal distribution of the same “object” holding “information.

While looking for this continuity, we should also try to identify the “kind” of information an “electron” can hold. Without forgetting that the information is also “transported” by chemicals through synapses.

The question would finally be: Are electrons THE information itself, or are they only their "transport facilities"?

I’m afraid that it won’t be easy; but we can always come back to when were produced electron/positron by collision of gamma rays, to see what basis those info could have.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 31st, 2018, 12:17 pm 

Proteins

Proteins are macromolecules (big molecules) consisting of one or more, long chains of amino acid residues.

An amino acid residue is what’s left over when you remove all identical parts of different amino acids. It’s what specifies a particular amino-acid and noted as “R” in drawings. This means that you have ONE kind of amino acid structure to which you add a specific "characteristic" (residue) that defines its ability.

Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms including DNA replication and transporting molecules.

Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. Which means that they are “geometrically controlled”.

A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. So instead of “proteins” we could call them “big peptides”. Which means that proteins are peptides.

The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

A peptide bond, also known as an amide bond, is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain. This means that a peptide is an amide and it is still a covalent bond that is implicated.

I'm starting to understand why biology is so complicated, complex, difficult, intricate, dense etc. It's because it as so much names for the same "thing". Biologists must use a "synonyms dictionary".

Image

Important!

I’ve put in the clockwise rotation that shows how the “one hydrogen” bounded oxygen atom is “pushed out” of one amino-acid when smashed by a two hydrogen bounded nitrogen atom of another amino-acid that loses one hydrogen bound to the oxygen atom in the process; resulting in an “outside” water molecule. Note that the so-called peptide bound comes out of nowhere in the drawing; it just appears “magically”; which is not acceptable a an explanation.

Amide. Most common are carboxamides. The properties and reactivity of the carboxamide group arise from the hydrogen bonding capabilities of the -NH2 group as well as the carbonyl oxygen. Furthermore, the carbon atom in a carboxamide has a low-lying LUMO that is capable of accepting electron density from the nonbonding lone pair on the nitrogen, weakening the carbon-oxygen bond. In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals. The acronyms stand for "highest occupied molecular orbital" and "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital", respectively. Note that if biologists talk of “molecular orbitals”, it should mean that molecules rotate.

Image

Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2. It is the simplest amide (meaning Peptide or Protein) derived from acetic acid.

Acetic acid , systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid). It consists of a methyl group attached to a carboxyl group. The rotation axis is at the center of the middle Carbon atom on my drawing.

Image

A monomer is a molecule that can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule. Natural monomers are Amino acids (for proteins), Nucleotides (for RNA and DNA), Glucose and related sugars (monosaccharides for carbohydrates, glucose which is linked by glycosidic bonds (ouch!) into the polymers cellulose, starch, and glycogen.), and Isoprene a natural monomer that polymerizes to form natural rubber.

We will see Glucose in the next post. Isn't that sweet enough?
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on March 31st, 2018, 1:39 pm 

Glucose

I’ve already drawn Amino-acids, Nucleotides, and Proteins; which leaves me to draw Glucose with the formula C6H12O6.

Image

My drawing:

Image

Note that the barycenter is not at the center of the middle Carbon atom; it is off-centered to the lower-right (not shown).

What is said about Glucose?

1) They are fundamental units of carbohydrates and cannot be further hydrolyzed to simpler compounds. What I see is that they are surrounded (protected?) by hydrogen bounded oxygen atoms, and that all gaps are "blocked by an Hydrogen atom except one.

2) They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, and crystalline solids.

3) Glucose, is a hexose; a subcategory of the monosaccharides.

4) Glucose is the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

5) Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms.

6) Glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react non-specifically with the amine groups of proteins.

7) The reason for glucose having the most stable cyclic form of all the aldohexoses is that its hydroxy groups are in the equatorial position; which means on the Time flow where “gravitational effect” is less effective, but were the “Tidal effects” are stronger than Hydrogen bonds, being at the “Oxygen-Carbon" atoms level.

8) Glucose is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans.

9) Glucose is oxidized to eventually form carbon dioxide and water, yielding energy mostly in the form of ATP.

10) Glucose supplies almost all the energy for the brain.

11) The enzymes that join glucose to other molecules usually use phosphorylated glucose to power the formation of the new bond by coupling it with the breaking of the glucose-phosphate bond. I'm tempted to draw it, to show the "rotational effects"; but I'll restrain myself.

12) Each glucose isomer is subject to rotational isomerism. Within the cyclic form of glucose, rotation may occur around the O6-C6-C5-O5 torsion angle, termed the ω-angle, to form three staggered rotamer conformations called gauche-gauche (gg), gauche-trans (gt) and trans-gauche (tg). There is a tendency for the ω-angle to adopt a gauche conformation, a tendency that is attributed to the gauche effect.

Read: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27015599 where is mentioned “molecular spin clusters”.

Nevertheless, Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch, and in animals as glycogen.

Sorry but I don't know what will be coming next. We will all have the surprise.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 1st, 2018, 11:37 am 

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions, which break large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process, as weak so-called "high-energy" bonds are replaced by stronger bonds in the products.

It’s rather surprising to me, that “high-energy” bonds would be “weak”.

Respiration is one of the key ways a cell releases chemical energy to fuel cellular activity.

Nutrients that are commonly used by animal and plant cells in respiration include sugar, amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2).

The formula for cellular respiration is:

C6H12O6 (Glucose) + O2 (Oxygen) --> H2O (Water) + CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) + ATP (C10H16N5O13P3).

Image

My drawing of ATP:

Image

(Red inner circles are Oxygen's first shell; Yellow inner circles are Phosphate's first shell, black inner circles are Carbon's first shell, light blue inner circles are Nitrogen's first shell, and single blue circles are Hydrogen's first shell).

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. It is a cell's energy "bank."

In the diagram above, you can see that there are three phosphate groups as part of ATP. In the bonds of the phosphate groups, energy is stored.

And in my drawing, you can imagine that the Ribose-Adenine group was already joined before joining with the Phosphate group.

Since so much energy is stored in the bonds (you can see in my drawing the energy "stored" at the only two oxygen atoms “full” valence shells where an incoming simple electron could “break” the bond), one of the bonds "breaks," releasing some energy and letting go of one of the phosphate groups. This makes ATP turn into ADP, adenosine diphosphate. To make ADP turn into ATP again, glucose that contains energy (Carbon and Oxygen ions) forms another bond with ADP, turning ADP into ATP again.

But it has to keep hold of its Hydrogen bonded atom (no 1 in my drawing). Otherwise it cannot form another bond.

The explanation resides in the next note.

Note that numbers 1-2-3, on my drawing, show the very first real exclusive hydrogen bonds I’ve had to use in any drawings until now. All bonds, before this drawing of ATP, were normal Carbon with Nitrogen or Oxygen atomic bonds; never “exclusive” hydrogen bonds.

The only reason I can see, is because previously all bonding were operated while the joining molecules clusters were rotating, and a simple hydrogen “tidal effect” wasn’t enough to “hold” bonds; a stronger “gravitational effect” was needed to “capture” and “hold” molecule clusters after the rotational “impact”.

Now, in ATP, we clearly see that we have three hydrogen bonds that can hold the phosphate group to the previously bonded Ribose-Adenine group. This means that both groups weren’t rotating anymore; otherwise the hydrogen bonds wouldn’t have held.

Somehow, after the bounding result followed by collision of parts of rotating molecule clusters, the resulted joined clusters stopped rotating after impact.

This event defined a new evolution level of “molecular structures”.

From now on, “real” exclusive hydrogen bonds could be effective. Bonding didn’t need the valence shells denser energy of atoms with nuclei containing mass-energy of protons + neutrons, but could get the same result with a “single proton's tidal effect” of the hydrogen nuclei. Which is logical considering the greater "intensity" of a "gravitational effect" compared to a simple "tidal effect"

This observation is possible only because we make our search starting from the past towards today. If we had used the other way around, we would have discovered Hydrogen bonds first, and never put attention to any rotating molecules clusters.

We probably would have “imagined” all sorts of “forces” to explain the different bonds we were seeing, without even thinking a second that the initial “effects”, responsible of the occurrence of everything before molecules, had to be also “working” after the advent of those molecules.

I really feel that a simpler explanation is slowly emerging from our investigation.

Furthermore, being related to "gravitational effect", organisms structure keeps relevant to the subject of this discussion.

Fun, isn't it?
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 2nd, 2018, 10:22 am 

I could add:

A glycosidic bond is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group. Which confirms that we are always facing "covalent bonds".

Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

A polymer is a macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function.

And we are back to our previous RNA through DNA.

I'll have a final check if we really enclosed the subject.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 3rd, 2018, 12:14 pm 

Bonds

Let’s see what we found, listing it accordingly to the kind of bonds involved:

First, we have to note that all atoms, and all “free” molecules rotate.

A)- Gravitational bonds

Note: Amino-acids rotate while forming and keep on rotating afterward.

Valine (amino-acid)
Glycine (amino-acid)
Alanine (amino-Acid)
Leucine (amino-acid)
Histidine (amino-acid)
Cysteine (amino-acid)¬
Tryptophan (amino-acid) (possesses a barycenter)

Note: Nucleobases rotate before joining and stop when joined. Presented here according to their chronological appearance.

1-Uracil (nucleobase) (barycenter)
2-Thymine (nucleobase)
3-Adenine (nucleobase)
4-Cytosine (nucleobase) (barycenter)
5-Guanine (nucleobase)

Glucose (rotates)
Acetic acid

Phosphate molecule (rotates until joined)
Benzene molecule (barycenter)
Pyrimidine molecule
NH2 molecule
Ammonia molecule

Desoxyribose (rotates until joined))

Amide

DNA (does not rotate)
RNA (does not rotate but curves)

B)-Tidal effect bonds

Ribose.

We have a problem with Ribose which does not rotate. In fact, Ribose seems to be a “conditional” component.

We know that all molecules rotate; so there’s no way that, simple “too weak” hydrogen bonds could “fabricate” Ribose with rotating molecules. Which means that its components have to be “captured” separately, by the Adenine and the Phosphate group and “compose” Ribose when joining.

Furthermore, the capture made by Adenine must stops its rotation.

As for the Phosphate group, it doesn’t rotate.

Acetamide

Phosphate groups (do not rotate)

ATP (does not rotate)

So this is all we saw up until now. What can we say about it?

1) We didn’t mentioned it formally, but whatever “inert” components is formed on a “solid state”, as rocks, dirt, etc., is accreted by “gravitational bondage”. “Tidal effect” bonds appears with liquids and gases.

2) The same “gravitational bonds” produces whatever appears before Phosphate groups and Acetamide. Afterward “Tidal effect” can takes over because rotations are not involved anymore.

And that’s all there seems to be.

All complexity just disappeared in this single last post. After such an amount of work, I’m really impressed.

I’ll double check if I didn’t forget anything.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 4th, 2018, 1:36 pm 

Miscellaneous:

1) - If we consider that information exchange is made by « flowing » electronic energy through « Tidal effects » at the valence shell level, it is remarkable to also consider that “information” in the brain travels through electronic “flows” in neurones.

2) - The universe’s “Space aspect” has a “flat” topology inside and outside “gravitational fields”, and “Tidal effects” are always at the same “Space” level as the barycenter.

3) – All energy is always manifested at the “Time” level; even the “mass-energy” standing inside the center of a gravitational field’s “basic-space-unit” is strictly installed at a moment of “passed” Time.

4) - The main point of “entry” of electronic energy and of incoming centers of gravity (mass-energy), in an atom, is always at the 12hr >-< 6hre line, perpendicular to the atom’s main “Time flow” at 3hr <-> 9hr; where energy is expelled according to the universal Time clock’s hours (lines) as shown here :

Image

The successive hours indicates the vertical "Time rotation" with its axis at the center of gravity, while the horizontal "space rotation's axis is the 12hr >-< 6hr line.

And all this “magnetism” origins from the Gluon.

The drawing also explains clearly the “magnetic” neutrality of a Gluon (at the center) where mass-energy neutralizes itself coming from all directions, before being “divided” in quarks by the energetic 3hr – 9hr Time flow.

Knowing that Gluons are “basic-space-units” that cannot be smaller, if we reduce the following permanent magnet to the size of a Gluon (10^-35 meter), we get superimposed North and South poles (half of the space available is impossible to exist). The “magnetic” South Pole is then installed perpendicular to the “out-flowing” North Pole, which result in the Gluon’s trajectories of the “Time flows”.

Image

Same structure as for our planet’s magnetic field:

Image

Where we find the rotation of the Earth perpendicular to its magnetic field.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 8th, 2018, 11:20 am 

Entries confirmations in atoms:

Here is when and where, the « entries » at 12hr and 6 hr were confirmed at the atomic level.

Image

This also explains why we find two neutrons in the nucleus when one would have been sufficient to separate the Protons.

Afterwards, a Neutron is expelled via 3 hr producing the Helium 3 atom out of the Helium 4 "Boson" atom.

The succeeding incoming Protons, producing new elements, would use those two points of entry, pushing the "in place" Proton on the other obliques "gravitational lines" (passive space).
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 11th, 2018, 11:15 am 

I’m still working on cells and molecules; but there are some questions that pop up in my mind, I have to address along the way.

Adding energy density to a center of gravity:

Let’s look deeper at joined atom’s centers of gravity versus atom’s bonded valence shells.

We will imagine three defined energy centers of gravity (different “birth dates”) merging together.

Image

The older the V shape is, the greater is the energy density; because energy dilutes progressively by the expansion of “Space” holding it.

So, C density being the less dense, gets denser when we had the B density to it; meaning retroceding in “Time” at a date when Space was denser. In fact, it should retrograde to the “birth date” of B density.

Because we have to take in consideration the constant motion of the Time flow; so density becomes greater near the center of gravity, diluting towards the valence shell. Consequently, “Time-wise”, the center of gravity of B density takes the place of C’s center of gravity; while, “Space-wise”, the density equalizes everywhere.

Image

One thing though, even if it seems that both centers of gravity merge into one single center, the “fact” seems to be that the “older” center of gravity takes the priority on the deformed “Time volume”, and keeps it a single “unit”.

We now have a B + C energy density in a C’s augmented “gravitational” affected volume of “Space”, where the center of gravity stands in “Time”, at Nov 12th.

When we add the A density, this new BC density gets even denser without getting as dense as the former A density (Space-wise); but “Time-wise, the center of gravity is now at Nov 16th. And a new one single “unit” is produced by the “take over” of A’s center of gravity. This explains why when the M shell is filled “Time wise” (Argon), it still can accept electrons “Space-wise” (heavier elements).

If we take quarks in a Proton as the identity of three centers of gravity, we get two “same date” density (Up quarks) joined with a bit “older” date (Down quark) to form a Proton. The total must sums to three equalized energy density fields that merge and produce one “inner” equilibrated field unit in “Space”, which center represents the “birth date” of the Down quark. This equalizing density process indicates that quark energy (Space wise) acts the same way (water) as electronic energy in a “tidal effects”; which is normal since it’s all “kinetic energy”.

So a Proton is the sum of three energy densities, of which two are equal, and the other denser, equalized (Space-wise) and confined at a definite moment in “Time”.

In a drawing, let’s say we take a density equalized volume of space (4/4) and add ¼ size of the same density to it, in two moves. Now let’s consider it Space-wise and Time-wise:

Image

So the “X” square (at bottom left) becomes a volume of “Space” confined in the “C” moment of “Time” (at right). This “X” square would be the “state” of a Proton in “Space”. The “gravitational field” (at right) would be the “state” of a Proton in “Time”. The circle shown is the same (a cone volume) as seen from the top at the present moment.

Note that “Time wise”, this Proton travels on its own “Time flow” carrying its “gravitational field”.

Now let’s see what is the difference when covalent bonding occurs?

Let’s have another drawing:

Image

First thing we see is that centers of gravity don’t change density “level” (birth date). They just get closer towards each other (in Space), caused by the joining of “field's borders” at the “Tidal effect” which “lowers” the produced mutual border.

Second their density augments until the energy density of the valence shell is reached (Space-wise). This increase in density doesn’t affect the “birth date” of the “gravitational field”.

But why does the M, N and O shells of atoms still increase density AFTER being “filled” producing a “noble gas”? It’s obvious that there’s an added valence shell to make covalent bonds; so this would mean that the energy density needed to “fill” a shell isn’t a “density limit” in a shell. This “limit” would reside in the “geometrical” deformation we already saw previously. And since “deformation” is “Time related”, once again, we get the “Time-flow” involved in the density limit of electronic shells confirmation. On the other hand it seems more likely that the “volume” of the shell augments in “Space” (gets wider in Space without getting “deeper” in Time) while keeping the same density limit. This is normal since electrons don’t possess centers of gravity to affect the atom “Time-wise”.

Third, there cannot be a covalent bond if two valence shells are already “filled” Time-wise.
This newly formed bonded “unit”, in our drawing, possesses three centers of gravity. They are structured as molecules.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 11th, 2018, 11:42 am 

Here is another consequence when energy is added to a center of gravity.

Angle deformation produced by added energy:

One more detail about the "size" of bonding valence shells.

Official measurements of the covalent bond radius of two (smaller) Hydrogen atoms is longer (37 Picometre) than the covalent bond radius of two (bigger) Helium 4 atoms (32 pm).

This is simply because the angle of deformed “Time” gets smaller by added "mass-energy's" pressure units at the nucleus center of gravity:

Image

And this is, also, another confirmation that the “gravitational effect” operates at the atomic level.

The result at the covalent bond radius is:

Image

The “Time angles” (Centers pushed back, further in “Time”, by mass-energy”) explain why the covalent bond radius of two Helium 4 atoms is smaller than the covalent bond of two Hydrogen atoms.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 13th, 2018, 3:11 pm 

How does the Gravitational field increase when added “mass-energy”?

First, I’ve checked if, by disposing Protons and neutrons differently in the Helium nucleus, it would change the “Time angle” of the “gravitational effect”. As you can see, when comparing A to B, it doesn’t change the angle.

Image

Second, I’ve checked if the Lithium’s “gravitational angle” diminishes by having one Proton added to Helium, and the angle does decrease. As you can see on the right, none of the three atoms (Hydrogen-Helium-Lithium) have the same angle; which affects their covalent bond’s radius accordingly.

Covalent radius measurements have been made for all elements of the periodic table; and all added Protons diminishes the “gravitational angle” until each noble gas is reached. You can verify here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covalent_radius

As we know, the element (atom) following a Noble gas is far bigger (adding another valence shell). So the diminishing “gr. angle” starts at a greater length of the covalent bond’s radius; but they always diminishes afterward.

However, at the copper atom, there’s a reverse trend and the two following atoms gets bigger bond’s radius. The same occurs with Silver and Gold and their two following atoms; but at the third atom, the radius starts diminishing again.

Copper atom

Here, I’ve drawn the Copper atom with 29 Protons and 29 Neutrons which is unstable, because there are too much Protons on (or near) the energetic Time flows which decay it rapidly. It needs 5 more Neutrons to gain a stabilized isotope (Cu-63).

You’ll see that I noted all the information we have gathered at this point, related to “Expansion”, “local Gravitation”, “centered Mass-energy”, “blurred Electronic energy”, “universal Electromagnetism”, and “Time flow”.

Image

But let’s see how this Copper atom was produced:

Image

That is how the Copper M shell gains two electrons when one elec. unit is added to the Nickel N shell’s atom. And that is the only possible reason to augment the covalent bond radius of the Copper atom compared to the Nickel atom. The M shell of the Copper atom has to get “larger (increase its size) all around the L shell; which answers our question as for its density limit that is never exceeded.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 17th, 2018, 10:26 am 

One thing I don’t like about my ideas.

When we put our attention to the next drawing, representing the first events after the Big bang…

Image

…we note the following:

1) The "radiating period" after the Big bang (confirmed by Planck satellite) is contained in a “Space” volume of three “basic Space units” in diameter (full yellow circle).

2) The gluon (in pink), itself, is indisputably neutralized energy “confined” in a “passive” Space unit because of its topology.

3) The “gravitational effect” is not “universal” but is “local” (between yellow Time flows).
4) The Top/antiTop quarks appear 10-43 second after the Gluon (the Time it takes to travel
10-35 meter).

5) The gluon appears at the second lapse of 10-43 second after the Big bang (which means the third duplicating layer of space unit).

6) The “Time” flows continuously at light-speed, while “Space units” appear after every lapse of 10-43 sec.

But let’s show the increasing of “Space”, with the decaying particles, from the end of the radiating period until the end of the inflation:

Image

And I hate it when such things shows up!

-Which thing?

-Look at the drawing:

1) We started with one single space unit containing all energy.

2) Then we get six additional basic space unit defining the trajectory of Time which, here I inscribed beside (outside) “Space” because “Time" is different from "Space" and I wanted to analyse “Space” (only two Time volumes are shown here, in yellow, standing over the bottom center unit).

3) And then, while “Time flow’s dependent Space” simply continues to duplicate (expand), “Time flow’s independent Space” appears. And that is the only “place” where “evolution”, meaning production in a stable environment, will take place afterward.

4) Following that, we find that our Time clock has twelve hours being defined by the Time flow’s expansion, and it becomes obvious that the “evolution’s schedule cycle” starts with something at 1 o’clock, and aims a target to be attained at 12 o’clock (Which defines 11 stages).

5) So I hate it; but, it astonishes me to find that when after starting (Space-wise) with a first volume at one o’clock, we end up with all needed fundamental particles, at twelve o’clock, ready to start another “clock cycle” (at 1 o’clock) that would bring further attained objectives of evolution.

The whole thing seems too “astrological” to my taste.

Luckily, we know that a Down quark has a “mass-energy” of 4.8 MeV which is the double of an Up quark with 2.4 MeV, and they both appear on the 12 o’clock “moment”. So this eases my mind a bit and I can now, go to sleep.

It’s interesting, though, to see the Higgs boson (125 GeV) appear before the W bosons (80.39 GeV) followed by the Bottom quarks (4.18 GeV).

This morning, re-reading this, I decided to verify with my former graphic on particle decay.

I found a few things:

Image

1) Every particles inside the dotted squares has its antiparticle, so they all annihilate each other; AT THE EXCEPTION of the new Gluon produced by the “collision” (or merge) of the Charm and AntiCharm quarks (at the middle-right).

2) This new Gluon decays into a Strange and an antiStrange quarks; which decays result in one Strange and one Up quarks surviving the annihilation, as I showed (middle far right).

Strange and Up quarks don’t produce Down quarks which are missing here. But there’s also something else that is missing; it’s the result of the other Gamma ray originating, this time, from the antiBottom quark (lower part of the drawing) of which I couldn’t find any experimental results but should be different than for a Bottom quark.

So, counting how many decays resulted in producing this surviving Up quark, I came to the total of nine stages.

Feeling quite released, I happily went back to my previous drawing and saw that the first gluon, which was my ninth particle decay stage, was standing inside the third “independent Space unit” ever produced. Which made a total of eleven stages.

Naturally, I refused absolutely to add the Planck epoch that would have made a twelfth stage taking the real beginning of our universe in consideration.

And that refusal, brought me back to the twelve evolution stages (or hours) from a zero “Potentiality” to a “Reality” (which is an attained realisation at 12 o’clock).

So; let’s forget I brought the subject.
Andrex
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 18th, 2018, 2:42 pm 

Deviation of trajectories

The following drawing is the deviated trajectories we develop if we define the angles toward the gravity center according to the axis of entry, and use their “counter-angles” (same angle on the other side of the axis) away from the same center.

The only method to confirm this “process” would be by comparing the objects’ entry trajectory with their exit trajectory according to facts observed; because the real curvature would be a lot “smoother” than what is shown here.

Image

Note that the object A’s trajectory makes it “crash” at the gravity center, whatever its “speed” is.

But ever without confirmation of the drawing’s results, there is still a very important question that pops up:

Why would an object deviate its trajectory?

The answer has to be that the increase of “energy density” slows down the object, which deviates it toward the center of gravity because of the loss of speed. As we all know, insufficient entry “speed” makes an object fall, increasing velocity, towards the center of gravity.

So the reality observed is that the object gains velocity toward the center, then loses it getting away from the center when a minimal speed limit is involved; which is contrary to what we explained and, most disturbingly, contrary to the notion behind the mass being given by the Higgs field because its energy density slows down the particle.

Let’s make a more explicit drawing:

Image

The result of gaining speed while “falling” toward the center is the “fact that I have to accept.

So the only explanation left possible, since there’s no “attraction” involved, is the notion that the energy which gets denser toward the center of gravity (in regard to the “Time flow”) is kinetic energy.

This “fact” installs “Time shells” around the gravity center possessing a definite speed” environment; and when an object enters this environment it adopts the “speed” dictated by the environment. Meaning that the denser the kinetic energy is, the “faster” travels an object.

The event being exclusively a “Time effect” is also confirmed by the “fact” that an object can be relatively “immobile” in Space, but never can be, relatively or not, “immobile” in Time. Time is never “still” wherever it is; while Space is “still” when it’s in a “gravitational field”.

Which observed “fact” is absolutely contrary to the “slowing effect” of energy density attributed to the Higgs field.

As for “mass”, everybody knows that two objects, whatever their mass is, will accelerate simultaneously while “falling” in the increasing energy density of a “gravitational field”; so how could “mass” be related, in any way, to “speed versus energy density as proposed by the Higgs field?

But then, again, I could have another problem regarding the acceleration of expansion in a continuously decreasing energy density as observed in our universe.

Luckily, this acceleration has nothing to do with energy density, since it is provoked by the increasing number of “basic-space-unit’s” constant duplication between cosmic objects. The acceleration of expansion is a "space factor"; duplicating 1000 space-units creates more “overall space” than the duplication of 10 space-units.

This space-unit duplication average actually 67 km per second per megaparsec.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 21st, 2018, 2:36 pm 

Layers of the universe

The universe is made of

a) “universal energy layers”,
b) “topological space field layers” and
c) “composite layers”.

This is the simplest way I’ve found yet, to “see” our universe. It denotes a “flowing” chronology just as much as “blocked instant’s objects”.

First universal energy layer: “Time.

This layer is installed at the start of Planck epoch (time = zero), and extends until today. It seems to be the nature of kinetic energy.

Second universal energy layer: “Space”.

This layer started at 10^-43 sec, and still keeps on duplicating today. It is produced by almost light-speed “motion” in all directions, that travels 10^-35 meter distance, making this the “basic” minimal diameter possible to exist, since, at light-speed, distances disappear.

Third universal energy layer: “Electromagnetism”.

It appeared when the Gluon’s centripetal topology (magnetism) installed itself perpendicular to the universal “toward everywhere” energy flow, at 10^-36 second.

First space field layer: “Centers of gravity”.

These are different basic space unit topologies that appeared at 10^-36 second, that we call Gluons. These basic space units possess a centripetal topology.

Second field layer: “Gravitational fields”.

These layers appeared around centers of gravity (first field) when Top and antiTop quarks where produced by splitting Gluons. They were 10^-15 meter in diameter. Which was the influence volume of a gluon’s spinning surface.

Third field layer: “Sub-particles”.

They are “mass-energy space-unit fields” composing massive particles. They are the result of kinetic energy responding to the second field layer’s topology oriented toward a centered space unit. All possess a center of gravity except the electronic energy unit. We call them quarks. As for Bosons they are energy quanta of either mass-energy and electromagnetic energy.

Fourth field layer: “electronism”.

It is the production of “electronic basic energy units” when electromagnetic waves collided, separating their frequencies up and down “motions”.

Fifth field layer: Hadronization

This is a layer of reunited sub-particles in groups of two or three.

Six field layer: “Elements

It starts when “electronic energy units” are captured by Hadrons; in “fact” Baryons (groups of three) since Mesons (groups two) don’t live long enough to capture any. When these united energy fields called atoms unify with each other by joining their center of gravities, they produce heavier elements that gain additional “mass-energy” which extend their “gravitational field”.

First composite layer: “Molecules”.

They result from the “tidal effect” caused by the gravitational fields of atoms brushing against each other. Atoms are then united without joining centers of gravity. Tidal effects are where electronic blurred energy flow from one atom to the other.

Second composite layer: “Cells”.

This composite layer starts when molecules collide, which stops their rotation and unites them by “Tidal effect” between heavy atoms. Some cells are circular and others are linear. Circular cells adopt a gravitational barycenter. The circulating flow of electronic energy distributes information between molecules composing the cell. Circular cells possess definite information while linear cells hold “progressive” information.

Third composite layer: “Organisms”.

They are the result of uniting cells. Which augments their information grade that keeps on accumulating while physical exchanges.

Note that I’m still blocked at the second composite layer because the “drawing” of some individual molecules are not identical when being presented in a cell composite.

I’m still verifying where this discrepancy comes from, before making d… drawings uselessly.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 24th, 2018, 9:46 am 

Energy density.

I’ve been talking, since the beginning, of “energy density”; which seems very “smart”, but isn’t that much so, in reality.

Because, even if we are starting to understand what “energy” is, meaning a “flowing motion” whatever its orientation, we don’t yet understand what and how it does, to reach equilibrium inside the universe’s continuously changing environment. Especially at the very first beginning, when our universe became electromagnetic at 10^-36 second after Time = Zero.

It is obvious that “energy density” starts at “Zero density”, which is a “Neutral state density”. And it’s just as obvious that, every time the universe has to equilibrate its density, it has to attain that “Neutral state” density, without the obligation to reach a “Zero energy state” of its components.

So the only way, is to put in presence two “contrary” energy states.

This “reality” has been observed rapidly, in the history of Science, as the polarized -1 and +1 “energy states” from the atomic level to higher levels.

But quantum mechanics discovered, just as fast, that this “one for one” polarization didn’t exist and wasn’t possible at the sub-atomic level, where a “3 to 1” relationship is absolutely needed.

This “need” was supplied by the Quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD) using “colour” and “flavor” charges; which really is an imaginative “exploit” as an explanation.

The only problem is, that quarks don’t really have “colours” or “flavours”.

So, can our “geometrical” description of “events” help find a simpler and more “realistic” explanation?

Let’s see:

We will, start at the atomic level where a Proton “energy state” defines a “gravitational field effect”, which needs two surrounding electronic-energy-basic-fields (electrons) to be neutralized and produce a neutral atom. This is considered as the positive “energy density” of a Proton needing two negative energy densities of electrons “equalizing the field”, without bringing each of the involved energies to a “zero energy state”.

Now, if we consider our own concept related to the “nature” of each energy, we get energies that simply possess contrary orientations.

The Proton is a field of confined “kinetic energy” oriented “toward its center”, while the electronic-energy-unit is a field of confined “swirling” kinetic energy.

And we’ve already seen that this contrary orientation “structure” of the universe, where “gravitational Space” is perpendicular to the existing “toward everywhere” oriented Time energy, was the case since the appearance of the Gluon at 10^ -36 sec. when all “Space” existing had the diameter of 10^-15 meter.

Its drawing looked like so:

Image

But the “Time reality” of the universe, at that “Gluon” moment, was a lot more specific than this previous drawing. It had already defined a “12 orientations pattern”, successively contrary to one another; as the following:

Image

And we can easily see that the difference between these energy orientations are regarding their “flow”. So, since the “time flow” is an “invariant” and the “gravitational flow” is “cumulative”, the previous drawing represents specifically the Time” aspect free flow of the total universe.

What we really need is its Space” aspect, in order to analyze definite “volumes” of energy.

And the “Space” aspect would be the following…

Image

…where “Space” is perpendicular to the invariant free “Time flow”.

Here we, now, clearly see that each “gravitational energy orientations” sums to “neutrality”; but the reality is that, when is added the free “invariant Time flow’s energy”, this “neutrality” is overwhelmed and disappears.

So, to equalize the “gravitational field’s” energy with the “Time flow’s” energy, we have to eliminate whatever “gravitational energy” that neutralizes it (could this mean: eliminating "anti-gravity"? I'll have to think about this)..

And we end up with this drawing:

Image


Where “Space’s gravitational energy” is equal to the “Time flow’s energy” (creating “space”). We thus get a volume of “energy-Time-flow” = “Space”, and obtain a volume of non-expanding” Space-Time.

It is very clear to see that this volume of “neutralized Space” needs three “gravitational” energy states to “equalize” the Time flow’s energy. We also see that they are all different from one another just as the three quarks of QCD.

And this is what determines the number of quarks needed in a “stable” Proton. Meaning, 2 different “oblique” quarks, each equal to 1/4 of “Space’s gravitational energy”, plus 1 perpendicular quark equal to 2/4 of “Space’s gravitational energy”.

Which shows as:

Image

But then, again, this explanation doesn’t totally conforms to the “concept” of QCD, since a “Down quark” is said to have 1/3 negative charge with twice as more “mass-energy” than a 2/3 positive charged Up quark. Did we make an error?

The “fact” is that, mass-energy-wise, our drawing has to represents only the “reality” of Down quarks being twice as more “massive” than Up quarks; because, size-wise, science cannot pronounce itself. So they simply consider those “energy states” as “point particles” (sizeless). The “fact” known is that their smallest size possible is 10^-35 meter, and they are “confined”, three at the time, in a volume of 10^-15 meter.

So, when you measure the “orientation” (charge) of a Down quark you measure its “energy oblique orientation” that applies to all its related “Space”, which covers all space between the vertical axis and the horizontal axis. This 1/3 “charge” amounts to 2/4 of the “Space” involved, which energy is, afterward, “compressed” in ¼ of space of the previous drawing.

And when you measure the “orientation’s perpendicular energy” of an Up quark, the “Space” implied is containing the general energy density found in 1/4 of the total “Space”, which is then “repeated” in another 1/4 of the “Space” involved, which doesn’t change its energy density.

Density-wise, on the drawing it would show as:

Image

So, in an Up quark, the density (mass-energy) it represents, is ¼ of the total energy present in 2/4 of “Space”; while in a Down quark, the density (mass-energy) represents 2/4 of energy “compressed” in 1/4 of “Space”. Which makes the Down quark twice more “massive” than an Up quark.

As for the “negative” and the “positive” aspect, the “fact” resides in the difference from the perpendicular orientations of each quarks. Up quarks are perpendicular while Down quarks are “oblique”. They are not “contrary” to each other because, then, their energy would be neutralized; which they, obviously, are not. The universe doesn’t do maths, it simply operates with its “Space” (volumes) and “energy” (Time) factors.

On the other hand, the obliquity of Down quarks could indicate their counter-clock-wise rotation which would then confirm the clock-wise rotation of the Up quark (see the next drawing).

But what maths doesn’t tell, and our concept does, is that an Up quark is twice “bigger in size” than a Down quark, even if it is half “massive”; which could explain its “stability”. Quarks cannot be “point particles” (sizeless); they have to be volumes of “energy states”.

So a Proton would look as the following:

Image

…where the 4/4 (total) density of quarks equals to 1% of the Proton’s “mass-energy” (rotating quarks), leaving 99% of it, to the kinetic energy of orbiting quarks, “pushing” towards the Proton’s center of gravity inside its “inner gravitational field”. Which "pressure" extends its "outer" surrounding gravitational field about 10,000 times.

Personally, I feel that we, now, can see “clearer” the QCD event’s reality.
Andrex
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 26th, 2018, 9:55 am 

Anti-gravity

I made a promise in my previous post:

“So, to equalize the “gravitational field’s” energy with the “Time flow’s” energy, we have to eliminate whatever “gravitational energy” that neutralizes it (could this mean: eliminating "anti-gravity"? I'll have to think about this).”

And I thought about it while looking at this picture:

Image

Without doubt, this picture represents a Gluon when it appeared in our universe. And it confirms two “facts” we already saw:

1) Inside a Gluon, the energy is neutralized by its different contrary orientations; this is why we observe that Gluons don’t have mass. The “reality” is that a Gluon possesses twice as much “mass-energy” than a Top quark, because it contains the total “mass-energy” of Top and antiTop quarks; but being “neutralized”, we cannot “measure” it.

2) Top and antiTop quarks are simply the “half” parts of a Gluon, separated by the overwhelming “Time flow” energy as we can see on the next picture:

Image

As we can observe, the Top quark’s “mass-energy” is “half” of the Gluon’s “mass-energy”.

But we can also perceive that “anti-gravitation” is an error of interpretation.

What is neutralizing the Gluon’s “mass-energy” is not “anti-mass-energy” (anti-gravity) but simply contrary oriented “mass-energy.

So there only one sort of “mass-energy” that exists, and it’s always topology-confined” kinetic energy, oriented toward a single point.
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Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Postby Andrex on April 30th, 2018, 2:42 pm 

Bottom quark

The next drawing is a Proton as we’ve seen in my previous post.

Image

This Proton is composed of quarks (energy states) of which the first that appeared in the universe was the heaviest Top quark.

Image

This Top quark was the maximum “mass-energy state” density possible to exist; and it stood in an environment with a constantly decreasing energy density, because of the expanding space.

So, to keep “existing” in such an environment, this Top quark had to balance its own mass-energy density “state” to its environment density “state”. To do so, it had to “eject” its surplus of energy while keeping its “energetic structure” of energy as the following:

Image

First, let’s note that the “ejection” is made at the 9hr – 3 hr of the universal Time clock.

Second, the Bottom quark is the residue needed to attain equilibrium with the environment; so the 80 390 MeV ejection of “mass-energy” is made when the universe’s energy density is 4 240 MeV. Which could make the appearance of the W+ Boson simultaneous to the Bottom quark; but it also could be a progressive process which seems more logical.

Third, none of the six directional small triangles, around the centered circle, are identical and represents all “gravitational” possibilities on the Time clock. Which might explain the existence of six different quarks possible.

Finally, we will focus our observation on the ejected W+ Boson.

This ejected Boson particle is simply a surplus of “mass-energy” ejected from the Top quark to diminish its own energy density “state”. Which explains why the W+ Boson possesses “mass-energy”.

Experiences in colliders tells us that this W+ Boson of 80 390 MeV decays into a Bottom quark of 4 240 MeV which then decays into an Up quark of 1.9 MeV and an antiDown quark of 4.4 MeV.

Which means that this decay process misses 76 150 MeV between the W+ and the resulting Botton quark. It could explain the difficulties to identify everything that surrounds a Bottom quark in the process.

Meanwhile, another 4 233 Mev, between the resulted Bottom quark and the following resulting Up and Down quarks, is missing.

Note that Bottom quarks, elsewhere, decay into a Charm or an Up quark. Which, just as well, leave missing “mass-energy” (Charm, leaving 1 925 MeV and Up, leaving 4 237 MeV). Could this mean that there are two kinds (or generations) of Bottom quarks like there seems to be for Gluons?

Now, all this missing “mass-energy” has to go somewhere, because it cannot simply stop existing; and the only possibility it has is to be transformed into Kinetic energy or electromagnetic energy (which is the kinetic energy at the electromagnetism level). So these results have to be accompanied by electrons and neutrinos; which are rarely mentioned.

Note: Most Bottom quark “live” longer (10^-12 sec) than a Charm quark (10^-13 sec), which is not “normal”; and shorter than a Strange quark (10^-8 sec), which is more logical.

As you can see, there are quite a lot more informations to be collected through future collider experiences.
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