### A variable expansion speed theory of gravity

Posted:

**June 25th, 2015, 12:33 pm**Let's say I won't use any equations (I couldn't anyway). But I'm curious to find if the folowing would change something in what you have presented so far (wich I like very much); but I'm afraid it would need a different mathematic formula. Here is my point of view:

Curvature around a mass is not the complete reality

To “see” the exact situation we have to consider the nature of a black hole

From what I know, a Black hole is the maximal deformation of the geometry of a certain volume of space-time.

That deformation of the volume of space-time extends way down to its center of gravity.

Which seems to mean that the deformation in question is the result of something acting on the center of gravity itself.

And that means that de deformation is not, at all, caused by the presence of a ball of matter floating in space, like a bowling ball placed on a mattress. If you look, for example, at the M31 galaxy (Andromeda) where there is a black hole in its center, the galaxy doesn't have the form of a funnel. You can get in the Black hole from either side of the galaxy. And you certainly won’t get through and emerge on the other side.

The first consideration we must do is accept that; if it’s not the quantity of matter that deforms space-time it has to be the next best bet: the mass energy of that quantity of matter. And we can had that, the "mass energy" directs itself toward the center of gravity of that quantity of matter. To support this view, just think that the mass of a proton consist of its three internal quarks for 1% and its inner energy for 99%.

So what kind of space-time deformation are we talking about?

The only possibility is that the deformation is in the fabric of space-time itself and not at all in the fabric of matter. The reason might be that matter doesn't replace space-time; it only occupies it. The volume of matter is space-time in itself and that space doesn't disappear when matter appears.

First of all, the deformation of space-time is not in a downward direction; so the name Black "hole" is physically inappropriate. It is not a "hole". Instead, we should talk about a "Black ball"; because the circular event horizon of a Black hole doesn't represent a flat surface; it represents a volume of space-time: a "ball".

So, again, what can we say about the fabric of space-time?

We can only say that it has a metric. And, it's easy to understand that the expansion of the universe is exactly the progressive growth of that metric (Hubble's constant has a metric of one mega parsec). But what does that mean? What does it looks like?

To find out, let’s say we choose a metric (a length) of one foot (Hubble’s constant has a metric of one mega parsec). The continuous growth of that metric will result in the fact that our foot will gradually become a foot that measures 13 inches-> 14 inches -> 15 inches and so on, but will still be "a foot". That is the expansion of the metric of the universe. The whole thing started when the universe had a diameter of 10^-35 meter; and the date was: 10^-43 sec after time = zero. And the universe of that epoch is still de same universe today (plus its entropy).

So what happens if we choose one precise point of the fabric of the universe and we block the growth "movement" at that point?

I'd say that the expansion of space-time will stop for that point and a deformation will occur around it because the surroundings of the point will continue to expand.

Let’s say that we stopped the expansion of our chosen point at the moment where our metric had grown to the size of two feet. In stopping its growth, we have obtained a metric of space-time that is now "stable". That part of space-time doesn't change its metric anymore; even though the rest of the universe still expands.

That is exactly the situation in which we observe our space-time from the level of the galaxies down to the level of the atoms. We live in a volume of space-time where its metric is stabilized. That volume of stable space-time is our galaxy.

Now; let’s choose a deformation of space that is occupied by a great big star. The point "center of gravity" of that deformation is blocked like the rest of the galaxy where this star is located and the "mass energy" of the star is what stabilises its volume, gives its form etc.

What we now are going to do is add "mass energy" to that star. To do so, all we have to do is accumulate matter particles, containing mass energy, on the surface of the star so that the energy of those particles joins the mass energy of the star. Adding mass energy increases the “action” on the centre of gravity of the deformation of its space-time. So gradually, our point "center of gravity" start to "back up" in its metric. This is called "collapsing".

When we will have added enough mass energy to our star, its metric will collapse with all the matter it contains (passing through opposite reactions encountered) back to the size of the original metric it started from : The one which has (or had) the size of 10^-35 meter.

We have now obtained a "Black hole" with its singularity that everybody cannot describe.

We can even make a parallel between the photon liberation at 380,000 years after Big bang and the horizon of a Black hole where we find the limit of "free" photons approaching a Black hole.

With these information, we can now start again breaking our brain on problems created by Black holes.

The actual description, above, is that the production of a Black hole is exactly the reverse process of the production (or the evolution) of the universe. So whatever mathematics says that doesn't correspond to the evolution of the universe since 13, 7 billion years has great chances to be wrong.

André Lefebvre

Curvature around a mass is not the complete reality

To “see” the exact situation we have to consider the nature of a black hole

From what I know, a Black hole is the maximal deformation of the geometry of a certain volume of space-time.

That deformation of the volume of space-time extends way down to its center of gravity.

Which seems to mean that the deformation in question is the result of something acting on the center of gravity itself.

And that means that de deformation is not, at all, caused by the presence of a ball of matter floating in space, like a bowling ball placed on a mattress. If you look, for example, at the M31 galaxy (Andromeda) where there is a black hole in its center, the galaxy doesn't have the form of a funnel. You can get in the Black hole from either side of the galaxy. And you certainly won’t get through and emerge on the other side.

The first consideration we must do is accept that; if it’s not the quantity of matter that deforms space-time it has to be the next best bet: the mass energy of that quantity of matter. And we can had that, the "mass energy" directs itself toward the center of gravity of that quantity of matter. To support this view, just think that the mass of a proton consist of its three internal quarks for 1% and its inner energy for 99%.

So what kind of space-time deformation are we talking about?

The only possibility is that the deformation is in the fabric of space-time itself and not at all in the fabric of matter. The reason might be that matter doesn't replace space-time; it only occupies it. The volume of matter is space-time in itself and that space doesn't disappear when matter appears.

First of all, the deformation of space-time is not in a downward direction; so the name Black "hole" is physically inappropriate. It is not a "hole". Instead, we should talk about a "Black ball"; because the circular event horizon of a Black hole doesn't represent a flat surface; it represents a volume of space-time: a "ball".

So, again, what can we say about the fabric of space-time?

We can only say that it has a metric. And, it's easy to understand that the expansion of the universe is exactly the progressive growth of that metric (Hubble's constant has a metric of one mega parsec). But what does that mean? What does it looks like?

To find out, let’s say we choose a metric (a length) of one foot (Hubble’s constant has a metric of one mega parsec). The continuous growth of that metric will result in the fact that our foot will gradually become a foot that measures 13 inches-> 14 inches -> 15 inches and so on, but will still be "a foot". That is the expansion of the metric of the universe. The whole thing started when the universe had a diameter of 10^-35 meter; and the date was: 10^-43 sec after time = zero. And the universe of that epoch is still de same universe today (plus its entropy).

So what happens if we choose one precise point of the fabric of the universe and we block the growth "movement" at that point?

I'd say that the expansion of space-time will stop for that point and a deformation will occur around it because the surroundings of the point will continue to expand.

Let’s say that we stopped the expansion of our chosen point at the moment where our metric had grown to the size of two feet. In stopping its growth, we have obtained a metric of space-time that is now "stable". That part of space-time doesn't change its metric anymore; even though the rest of the universe still expands.

That is exactly the situation in which we observe our space-time from the level of the galaxies down to the level of the atoms. We live in a volume of space-time where its metric is stabilized. That volume of stable space-time is our galaxy.

Now; let’s choose a deformation of space that is occupied by a great big star. The point "center of gravity" of that deformation is blocked like the rest of the galaxy where this star is located and the "mass energy" of the star is what stabilises its volume, gives its form etc.

What we now are going to do is add "mass energy" to that star. To do so, all we have to do is accumulate matter particles, containing mass energy, on the surface of the star so that the energy of those particles joins the mass energy of the star. Adding mass energy increases the “action” on the centre of gravity of the deformation of its space-time. So gradually, our point "center of gravity" start to "back up" in its metric. This is called "collapsing".

When we will have added enough mass energy to our star, its metric will collapse with all the matter it contains (passing through opposite reactions encountered) back to the size of the original metric it started from : The one which has (or had) the size of 10^-35 meter.

We have now obtained a "Black hole" with its singularity that everybody cannot describe.

We can even make a parallel between the photon liberation at 380,000 years after Big bang and the horizon of a Black hole where we find the limit of "free" photons approaching a Black hole.

With these information, we can now start again breaking our brain on problems created by Black holes.

The actual description, above, is that the production of a Black hole is exactly the reverse process of the production (or the evolution) of the universe. So whatever mathematics says that doesn't correspond to the evolution of the universe since 13, 7 billion years has great chances to be wrong.

André Lefebvre