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### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: May 29th, 2019, 10:40 am
Shape of the total universal volume

The second volume of space is the one that gives the universe its “shape”: Because of the disposition of the space volumes, the universe possesses a polygonal shape. And it’s also easy to see that “Y” is shorter than “X”.

After 4 space volume reproductions (4 x (10*-43 s) the difference between the “perpendicular” diameters is, already, quite significant.

The proportion is, as shown on the next drawing, 10 volumes high x 11 volumes wide = 0.91%
Or a decreasing "ratio" of 1 basic space volume every 4 (10*-43 sec); which would make it "progressive". If not progressive, this would mean that when the universe was 13 billion light years in horizontal diameter, its perpendicular diameter was 11.83 billion light years.

Or if you prefer, its “horizontal” radius was 6.5 billion light years while its “vertical” radius was 5.915 light years; which is still 0.91%.

Just for fun, let’s check the Earth’s orbit:

Aphelion = 1, 0167 UA and Perihelion = 0, 98329 UA which equals = 0.967%

It wasn’t fun at all.

So what would be the shape of our universe?

According to space volumes distribution, the shape of the universe should look like this, or similar: Now here is what “Space-time” is all about.

1) All which is in red relates to “Time” while the rest is “space”.

2) All “balls” that have the same color (in corridors) have the same “birth date”. Space-wise” that represent the same “energy density”.

3) “Time-wise” all “balls” have their specific “energy density”. These “densities” are “subdivisions” of the space “corridors” energy densities”; like, for example, electronic shells containing “sub-shells”, which are “atomic orbitals”.

4) The “horizon” length of the universe is longer than its perpendicular length; making the universe a somewhat “flatten” dodecahedron. And the following is the “work” done by the two orientations of “kinetic energy” in the universe: So what do we see?

1) The “magnetism” is always perpendicular to “electronism”; which makes the whole universe electromagnetic.

2) The “gravitational effect” is always perpendicular to expansion.

3) Because of these two factors, all “fields” (space volumes), in the universe, possesses the same volume “ratio”.

4) Which means that the “gravitational fields” of “nucleus” (fields), “electronic shells” (fields), planets (fields), stars (fields) and Galaxies (fields) possess the same global “shape”.

5) And they are all “shorter” than electronism, expansion and “universal” time.

So let’s check the shape of a galaxy field.

We’ll do it, first, with the Crab nebula (from Hubble telescope) because we can compare a few fields inside it: The crab nebula is the result of a “supernova” that “exploded in 1054 to 1055 of the present era. It is now centered by a “pulsar”.

The bigger circles are copies of each other’s. I draw the bottom one and copied it to place at the top, using the center Pulsar to join both. We can see that they are mirror images of each other.

The smallest circle would be the shape of the galaxy when it exploded in a supernova in 1054. It was observed by a Chinese astronomer.

Since the two bigger ovals contain all “matter” that was expelled, I figure that those space volumes are related to “gravitational fields”; which instructs me to install the expansion energy flow, perpendicularly to them. That is where I’ve put the double headed red arrow. On the universal clock they would indicate the 3 hr and 9 hr.

Now let’s have a look at NGC 1672: We get a good idea of the size and shape of its “gravitational field”.

I couldn’t discern if the “flattening” process of the "universal field" was “stable” or progressive; but it seems as if it’s slightly progressive.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: May 30th, 2019, 11:10 am
The energy notion

I was saying previously: « It would be great to know exactly the real nature of "energy"; wouldn't it?”.

So here is what it has been coming to, up to now:

First:

A) The energetic speed of expansion = c (light-speed) = 1 (value of universal energy's intensity)

B) Space production = (space volume’s Diameter) x 3 x (10*-43 sec)

Or (D x 3) x (10*-43 sec)

Or 3D x 10*-43 sec. = 1

Second:

Observations:

« Energy » is not quantisable. Energy isn’t a « thing » that produces other « things ». Energy is strictly a simple “state of being”; a unique intensity value of “energetic state” of being. Its intensity, not being quantisable, we can quantise its “density” diluted in a volume, by measuring its “wavelength’s vibration”.

“Energy” isn’t a “force” either. It’s a “state of action”; or more precisely, an “invariant active state”. The only “value”, possible to give it, is: “One”; the “non-active state” being: “Zero”.

0) At the Big-bang this unique invariant “energy state” manifested itself and started a “motion” in every directions, producing “distances” and extending “time”.

1) Which means that the “universal energy” is kinetic energy that becomes the “cause” for “creation” of “space” (distances in all directions) and “time” (linear towards the “future”).

2) This energy is everywhere, at always its constant “full” intensity, inside each basic space volumes, “created” at every 10*-43 sec interval periods (it takes 10*-43 second to travel 10*-35 meter).

3) Its “motion” possesses a “flat” trajectory (straight line) in all directions. It cannot be “curved” since it doesn’t encounter any obstruction on its path. It, thus, creates “flat” space and “straight trajectory” progressing time.

4) This invariant “energetic state” dilutes itself gradually in the constant increasing “space”, but never loses any “intensity”. At every “basic space volume” produced, starts a new additional “time flow” that joins the already existing universal “time flow”.

5) The “action state” called “energy” possesses, intrinsically, all slower “speed” motions, from zero to light-speed “c”, which is its “invariant” maximum speed intensity. It also possesses all the “dates” (present moments) defined on its progressing “universal time flow” (the time arrow).

6) These different gradual “speeds” composing the maximum speed” are what is successively diluted by expansion, from “max speed/energy” to “zero speed/energy”.

7) And since the “production” of “basic space volumes” constantly increases every 10*-43 sec period, corridor’s space volumes gets bigger at every “space production” around the preceding “space volume”. Which gives those corridors a unique “time date” and “density”.

8) However, inside a “gravitational field”, the expanding motion is blocked; which means that every “orbital corridors” possesses its own “size” and “energy density”. This density of kinetic energy is what defines the “speed” allowed inside each corridors. And since the density increases towards the center of gravity, an object falling towards the center of gravity, in a gravitational field, increases its “speed” to the pro-rata of the environment’s density.

9) This provokes the event we observe with a rocket ship or satellite that doesn’t have enough speed to exit the “gravitational field”. It becomes “confined” inside the corridor which energy density corresponds to its proper “speed”. A) Time is not a « reproduction » phenomenon; it’s a « linear motion » event towards the “future”, in all direction, but from a unique starting point in the past; further back than “space”. “Space” appeared when “time” was already 10*-43 sec old; and it expended from everywhere towards everywhere. “Time” is a “present moment” that travels at light-speed; which freezes that “present moment” at a lapse of 10*-43 second for each basic distances of 10*-35 meter.

B) This 10*-43 second is thus represented by a “basic space volume” of 10*-35 meter in diameter.

C) Each of those “basic space volumes” possesses a « birthdate ». Thus any straight trajectory towards a center of gravity, is composed of “present point moments” of 10*-35 meter in diameter, having a “specific birthdate”, which are situated gradually farther in “time”. This defines a time flow towards the “past” to a “time trajectory” inside a “gravitational field”.

D) Consequently, each of these regressing “10*-35 meter” represents a progressing kinetic energy density towards the “past”. Which explains why the more we recede from a center of gravity, the more time extends which we see as “slowing down”.

André Lefebvre

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: June 5th, 2019, 12:01 pm
The only solution to every problems is the “Time factor”:

The next drawing presents the expansion of space through time which shows the decreasing kinetic energy density The following drawing presents expansion of “space” at each “present moments”; which eliminates the “Time factor” with the decreasing kinetic energy density. By imagining trajectories, in both these drawings, makes us understand that “curved” trajectories can only be a “time factor” result, caused by the increasing energy density towards the “past”, slowing down the velocity of a trajectory.

And since the “speed” of an object is what dictates the “falling” procedure towards a center of gravity, the slower the object gets, by obstructing increasing density, the more it “falls” toward that center.

But most importantly, we can also realize that the “deepness” of space, or the third “dimension” as seen usually, is strictly “Time related”, if not the “Time flow” itself.

And if so, this would mean that “space” is a “bi-dimensional motion” (a surface) expanding through the “Time-linear-motion” towards the “future”. Giving the “reality” three dimensions, exclusively, instead of four, as actually thought.

This would eliminate, in equations, the time dimension as a 4th dimension and would restrict the “gravitational effect” to the “deepness”, meaning to the “Time flow”.

This, being a “fact”, would be quite an achievement for Occam’s razor and bring a completely different “view” to observations; but what would a drawing show? This would be the ultimate concept of the universe, as being a dynamic state of kinetic energy, composed of a surface expanding “space” (where we stand to observe the past) traveling through “Time”, towards the “future”.

We can see that all motions, involved in the drawing of such a “dynamic universe”, are “centrifugal”, and express the “Time factor’s” reality.

Simple logic tells us that a “centrifugal motion” cannot exists if its “counterpart” doesn’t exists (just as “blackness”, which is a total absence of colors, cannot exists without the existence of “whiteness” that is the presence of all colors).

Which explains the existence of a “centripetal motion” inside the same “Time factor” of the universe dynamism’s. This “centripetal motion” is the “effect” we observe in a “gravitational field”.

And it is a “local event” because its “centripetal size”, in the “Time factor”, was limited to the size of the universe dynamism’s at the “epoch” it appeared inside it.

But what surprises me more, is that I can now understand the "nature" of "energy".

Energy is not a "thing" that does "work"; it's a general state of invariant dynamism that manifests constantly producing "space-time".

This "invariant dynamism" can be locally "excited" spreading, towards everywhere, invisible vibrations (waves) which, when obstructed, releases its "excited dynamism" in quanta of energy which "motion" can be observed.

By the way, it's also evident that all we can "see" is "motions", since photons are quanta of a traveling waves energy, meaning quanta of kinetic energy; even though we imagine "referentials" as "motionless" for quantifying "speed". Absolute "stillness" is impossible in a "dynamic state universe".

As for "absolute motion", it's now evident that it is quite impossible to difference it from the "absolute stillness" that cannot exists; but a "present moment" frozen in time leaves the only possibility of existence as the result of "absolute motion" which is "lightspeed".

There is still a lot of thinking left to be done.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: June 13th, 2019, 2:44 pm
Electromagnetism Further “research” on the implication of my “gravitational theory”, brings slightly different views from the official view of the reality; most of the time it brings precision to it.

Geometrically, the electromagnetic “space” (universal wave volume) has a shorter magnetism length than its perpendicular electronism. This is cause by the reproducing process of basic space volumes called “expansion of the universe”. It means that if the whole universe was a single electromagnetic "wave", its wavelength would be longer than its wave hights.

Electronism, being the “expansion energy flowing state” (wavelength), could then be more “space intense” (powerful) than the “magnetic state energy flow” (wave-hights) containing less space “energetic state” volumes. This could give a possibility to the existence of the "EM drive” of Roger Shawyer. But, either way, the “expansion energy flow” being 3D, while "magnetism state" is 2D; explains the constant continuation of “space expansion” and the splitting of both gluon’s faces from one another.

The geometric description follows here.

Time clock of electromagnetic flows: Drawing to the right is the energy flowing state, universal clock.

Drawing to the left is the physical result of “basic space volume” reproduction (expansion). This result shows a difference in length between the X and Y perpendicular dimensions.

But the “magnetism state flow” annuls itself, even if it accumulates, at the center; while the “expansion energetic flowing state” starts from it.

Note that an "energetic state" that is not "excited" isn't observable.

The universe (“space”, or “universal field”) is electromagnetic; which means that, when excited, it produces electromagnetic vibrations. And a vibration is a two contrary direction “motion”.

Classically, electromagnetic radiation (the far field) consists of electromagnetic waves, which are (excited) synchronized oscillations of electric and magnetic fields (a vibration) that propagate at the speed of light, which, in a vacuum, is commonly denoted “c”. When not excited, it is invisible and even non-discernible. It is either excited at the source (by an incoming energy state “unit”) or at the end (by an obstacle). But what is that “near field” between the emitter and the wave itself? The near field is the “distance” needed to a wave, in order to “obtain” its stable length’s structure. It is a three parts “process”.

The first part of the process is unifying the “overlapped” sideways vibrations, inside the “space field” separated by the “energetic state flow” (translation motion).

The second part of the process is unifying the up and down vibrations, which are still separated by the “energetic state flow”. But I’m not certain that this really occurs. You’ll see why further down.

The third part is the normal “electromagnetic waves” which becomes the “universal energetic flow” composed of “electronism” plus “magnetism”, which aren’t shown in that part of the drawing. This might indicate an error in the official electromagnetic wave “notion”.

But my first question is: Why was the vibrations overlapping at the start?

If we use the “universal clock”, can we figure it out? First we have to consider the two sides of the gluon’s surface (in green). Those “sides” cannot overlap since the “expanding energy state” separated them. But the two secondary “expanding energy flows” (11-5 hrs and 1-7 hrs) each affect one face (side) of the gluon, by spreading them on opposite sides of the “electronic field”.

Second, we have to remember that a gluon is a boson which can “accumulate” in the same “energetic state”. So these “states” have to be “overlapping”. Which confirms that the first and second part of the “process” is related to “magnetism”. The fact is that the unification of overlaps is executed by the gluon being spread through the whole “space volume” by the "energetic state" affecting both sides of its surface.

Third, we now can understand the structure of the electromagnetic “field”, composed of one “full electronic space sphere” occupied by two “magnetic fields”.

This “full electronic space sphere” is the “wave-front sphere” described following his drawing. Note: The red line tells that electromagnetic waves are oriented in all directions, while the magnetism is oriented toward the center of the sphere (electromagnetic field) always perpendicular to the direction.

This drawing shows that the “magnetic wavelength” is twice shorter than the “electronic field’s wavelength”. If it wasn’t, it wouldn’t be possible to have successive “half magnetic fields” vibrations; we would get a “full magnetic field” that would simply duplicates without any “vibrations”.

But then, we have to take in consideration that one of the "magnetic wavelength" is of an antimatter particle (ex:anti-quark); so when, afterward, antimatter was annihilated, the "particle wavelength" (quark) might have taken the whole length of the electromagnetic wave, while still vibrating, and produce what is observed today as the electromagnetic wave. So I made an error by doubting the official information.

The “wave-front” of electromagnetic waves emitted from a point source (such as a light bulb) is a sphere; which is the “electromagnetic field”. If so, that “sphere” is flattened at the poles because it is “space”; meaning that the “wave-hights” is shorter than the “wavelength”. Which could also means a difference in “speed vibration” (intensity) of both “fields”.

Furthermore, whatever the “size” of the “electromagnetic field” we observe, it is this "size" that defines the “wavelength” we are considering. This confirms that a “wavelength” is a “metric factor” of the universal “electromagnetic energy state”. Improving our interpretation that wavelengths are not “things”; they are strictly different “states” of the “space” electromagnetism.

And since electromagnetism appeared when “space” had a volume of 10*-15 meter in diameter, at 10*-36 sec. this is what the event was: And electromagnetic “space” continued to expand as followed: Producing what we observe: With the “space sphere” at the “wave-front”: So, what happens when this “wave-front” encounters an obstacle (an object)? We know that a photon never disintegrates, while a collision of two gamma rays produces a “positron” plus an “electron”.

We also understand that, what is “blocked” on the drawing, is the translation “motion” of the wave.

This would mean that the photon “energy field unit” is a simple electromagnetic “kinetic particle”; because no positron or electron particle appears in this case.

Let’s try to precise the drawing: This is presented in the visible waves of the electromagnetic spectrum; but the result is the same in all wavelengths.

My question is: Even if the translational motion is blocked, since energy cannot disappear, where did this kinetic energy “state” go?

The only answer is, that it was transformed into “heat”; a caloric energy state that is absorbed by the collided obstruction.

Officially, “the energy of an individual photon is quantized and is greater for photons of higher frequency. This relationship is given by Planck's equation E = hν, where E is the energy per photon, ν is the frequency of the photon, and h is Planck's constant. A single gamma ray photon, for example, might carry ~100,000 times the energy of a single photon of visible light”.

Like I already described in a previous post, I don’t agree with this affirmation. The photon’s intensity which means the “energy state of a photon”, is homogeneous through all the universe. The difference in its “effect” is the “frequency” of its “impacts”; which lasts as long as the source is excited (meaning: emitting vibrations). Which results in the following: Photons (electromagnetism energy state units) have a “full spin”; which is a regular rotation of 360 degrees (“half spins” are for particles that need a rotation of 720 degrees to come back at its original position. So, since a normal complete rotation is 360 degrees, those particles are valued having “half spins”. Funny kind of logic, but that's mathematics logic).

Gluon (Magnetism state field) also has a “full spin”.

Two objects with “full” spin, which come in relation, does so at a 60 degree angle to each other and acquire a “half” spin.

Now, we can presume that two objects coming in relation has to use the “magnetism factor”; because the “energy state flow” would repel them.

So, we’ll draw two “universal clocks” that have naturally a “full spin” and put them in relation to see what’s comes out of it. But we must remember the “energy inserting law” that demands the "insertion" to be at the 12 hr: So the total field produced by those two “universal clock” (or object) has to sum two rotations of 360 degrees of the objects which gives it a “mathematical” half spin of 720 degrees. I say “mathematical” because a rotation is related to “360 degree angles”; not to "sums" of angles, or “speed”, or “length”. Which indicates that the “spin” difficulty is a “mathematical concept” difficulty; not a “geometrical concept” or a “visual concept” difficulty.

I’m tired; so we’ll come back to all this another time. Hope you liked it.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: June 14th, 2019, 11:25 am

I forgot to mention that the 60 degree angles "relation" of joined objects is what we have in the previous drawing.

And it is, strictly, the consequence of the universal "energy inserting law" that demands the "insertion" to be at the 12 hr.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: June 17th, 2019, 2:57 pm
The “energetic state” notion

I have been restraining myself until today, but I have to do it.

I would like to try clarifying what I mean by the “universal field” being simply an “energetic state”.

The best example I could find yet was “water in a pool”.

Water, in a “pool field”, is in a “wetness state” just as the universe in the “universal field” is in an “energetic state”.

Whatever the size of the pool, the “wetness state” stays the same; it’s “wetness” is an invariant. You cannot be more or less “wet"; you’re “wet” or you’re “dry”. And the water in a big pool is just as wet as the water in a small pool.

The same logic applies to the “energetic state”; whatever the size of the “universal field”, its “intensity” stays the same; it is also an “invariant”. You cannot be “half-energetic”; you’re “energetic” or you’re “static”.

Furthermore, just as you cannot quantise the “wetness degree” of a water drop, you cannot quantise the “energetic intensity” of a portion of space; all portions are identical to the whole “universal volume” in the “universal field”, just as the water drop is identical to the whole water volume in the pool.

And if the water, in a “pool field”, changes its “wetness state” for a “dryness state”, the water stops existing. It doesn’t exist anymore.

Once again, it’s the same with the universe; if the universe changes its “energetic state” for a “static state”, the universe stops existing. It doesn’t exist anymore.

This is why the universe is simply an “energetic state field”; the same as a filled pool is a simple “wetness state pool field”.

Now here are the consequences of that “energetic state”:

Being in an “invariant energetic state”, gives certain “characteristics” to the “universal field”.

A- Its “energetic state” manifesting motion is at the maximum “speed” possible to exists; but since this “speed” is manifested by a “field” that is surrounded by “nothingness”, it cannot express a “translation” motion. It can only express a reproduction process called “expansion”. It's in this sense that "expansion" isn't a "motion".

Furthermore, since it is expanding in all 360o directions in a “straight trajectory”, the universal “energetic state” cannot rotate either (because the expansion trajectories wouldn’t be “straight” anymore); so all possible motions for its maximum “speed” are “frozen”. Which install the expanding “energetic state” into an expanding “potential energetic state”. It is “present” but its motion manifestation are strictly “potential”.

B- “Speed” being a “distance” traveled during a “time lapse”, means that both “distance” and “time lapse” are “frozen”.

C- This “lightspeed” was liable to manifests itself, only after the maximum “energy state” was attained. And even if we don’t know what “energy” really is, just as we don’t know what “wetness” really is, we can understand that this “energetic state” had to accumulate “energy” starting from a “static state”, in order to reach its maximum “energetic state”. Just as the “wetness state” had to accumulate “humidity” starting at “dryness”, to reach the maximum “humidity state” called the “wetness state”.

D- So, all this reveals another characteristic of the “universal field”, which is that the “universal energetic state” is actually a “potential energetic state”. It exists but we cannot “observe” any motion manifestation. We can’t even observe its “expanding” process.

E- We have now attained the first evolution “level” of the “universal energetic state”. But this first “level” is not electromagnetic yet. We’ve seen that electromagnetism will appear only when the surface gluon proto-particle installs itself perpendicularly to the “expanding process” of the “universal field”, when it had attain a diameter of 10^-15 meter.

F- This new addition of the gluon made the “universal field” a “composite universal field”; and this “composite field” was now in a “universal electromagnetic state field”. This new “status” of the universal field didn’t change its “potential energetic state”. Its “motion manifestation” was still unobservable.

G- But something had been change by the addition of a “perpendicular gluon field”; a new kind of potential “motion” was now possible to be expressed, which was successive up & down translation motion joined perpendicularly to a sideways translation motion. This new kind of motion is called: a vibration.

H- This new motion transfers itself from the “potentiality state” to the “manifesting state”, exclusively when the “universal energetic potential state” is “excited”.

I-Exciting” the “universal energetic state” became possible after the expanding process attacked each sides of the gluon “surface field particles”. Both faces of the particles were ripped from one another, producing two massive field volumes. The simple presence of those small massive "fields" in the “universal electromagnetic state field” was enough to excite the “electromagnetic field”.

J- The “excitement” was provoked by the “new created potential motion” which could be expressed in successive “up-down-sideways motions”. We can visualize the event happening into a flowing river. If you put a big rock in the “water flow”, water will react to that presence by forming waves in front of the obstacle. The same thing happens when a massive particles stands in the “electromagnetic flowing potential energetic state”. But since this flowing potentiality is in all directions, the wave production is all around the obstructing massive particle. And the new created electromagnetic wave is carried by the potential flowing motion.

K- Being carried by a “potential energetic flowing motion” prevents us from “seeing” the wave itself. But when this invisible energetic wave hits another obstacle, the wave is “blocked” and has to release its “kinetic electromagnetic energetic state” that we, then, can “observe” as a quantum of energetic state called a photon.

L- This quantum of “energetic state” is an expression of the “total universal energetic state”. It is not a “portion” of the “universal energetic state”, because the “universal state” cannot be a “composite” of “states”; it’s a “unique state”.

This is what makes important the exact understanding signification of the word “state”.

Ouf! This was quite an exercise of my English capabilities. Hope it was clear enough.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: September 16th, 2019, 11:14 am
Let's try to focus a bit more on added precision:

QCD

One of the great discoveries in Physics during the 20th century was the existence of Quarks.

Quarks are considered as “particles”; but, in fact, are punctual mass-energy quanta. Which means that they are the composites of “massive particles”. This discovery finally confirmed that “particles” are indeed “energy”.

Quarks are given “fractional values” because the proton they “compose” is conventionally given the value of “one” (1).

Personally, I don’t believe that the universe, or “nature”, had the possibility to learn mathematics; so I don’t really adopt the exclusivity of mathematics explanation, even if it can discern different quantification which, most of the time. brings complexity to our understanding.

So let’s see how quarks existence can be present in my understanding of the universal “creation” history.

At “Time equal zero”, the uni-dimensional energy potentiality started to manifest by using the only possible “motion” available in a “non-spatial” state. It started to rotate on itself producing a bi-dimensional surface caused by the centrifugal effect.

The normal centripetal effect followed right afterward. Both “effects” started to accumulate energy exponentially by the tangential acceleration at the circumference of this bi-dimensional surface. Naturally, the difference in intensity of each “effects” grew in conformity.

When the centripetal effect couldn’t hold to the centrifugal effect, they were ripped from one another.

The “energy quanta” representing the centrifugal effect where projected in all directions creating the first “space volume”, while the “energy quanta” representing the centripetal effect recoiled on themselves, producing a new surface which started to rotate in the contrary direction of the previous surface.

Both “effects” had reach the “energy state” producing light-speed. Which means that the “centrifugal quanta” projection at light-speed instantly resulted in a “space volume” having the diameter length of the distance covered at light-speed (10*-35 meter) while the recoiled “centripetal quanta” started to rotate at light-speed.

At this speed, the centripetal quanta needed only one single rotation to extend at the 10*-35 meter diameter, making it able to appear in the new created expanding volume.

At this moment the expanding space volume had reach a diameter of 10*-15 meter which became the “size” affected by the 10*-35 meter centripetal “energy quanta’s” surface. And the centrifugal effect “energy quanta” kept on expanding.

The surface centripetal “energy quanta” are what we call “gluons”. We cannot observe “gluons” as “definite particles” but we can observe them as “virtual particles”; because, being “surfaces” in rotation, they appear and disappear twice during each of their rotation.

On the other hand, we can observe events occurring inside this 10*-15 meter size of their “effect”. This is where “quarks” will eventually appear.

Expanding centrifugal quanta in all directions, affected both sides of each confined 10*-35 meter centripetal quantum surfaces, ripping those sides from one another, weakening each of their resistance on one side.

Having one side weakened, each split centripetal surfaces recoiled on themselves by their own energy, producing a volume of “centripetal energy quantum” which are called “quarks”.
Let’s have a few drawings starting with the “virtual” centripetal surface: As we can see, each had two rotations; one vertical and one horizontal. The splitting result of the gluon surface produced two split surfaces having one vertical contrary rotations. The vertical rotation represented their “helicity rotation” while the horizontal rotation made them “virtual particles”. These combine rotations are what we observe as their “spin”.

When both split surfaces recoiled, they resulted in two contrary rotating energy quanta volumes (quarks) having contrary “spins”. They stopped being “virtual” and became “defined” existing energy quanta.

Their contrary “spins” permitted them to unify three by three which produced Protons and antiprotons: It becomes quite simple to understand that the universe is in an “energetic state” which produces “motions” that results in whatever we can observe today, according to the "field" the motion occurs.

André Lefebvre.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 7th, 2019, 11:32 am
My final (I hope) view on energy.

The first law of thermodynamics stipulates that the total energy of an isolated system is always constant. Which means that energy can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot be created nor destroyed.

Our universe being “all that exists” is definitively an “isolated system”. Which means that, in the universe, energy cannot be created nor destroyed (Lavoisier's Law); it can only transforms itself (Carnot's principle).

Consequently, if energy cannot be created or destroyed in our universe, this could mean that it isn’t “located” in our universe but stands “somewhere else”.

As for being “transformable”, the “fact” would simply be that it is strictly its “effects” in our universe, which gives different results depending on the environment conditions of where it occurs.

This would also mean that, in that located “somewhere else”, there is only one kind of energy that exists and it is “kinetic energy”. And this “kinetic energy” stands where it was first “created” by rotation: in the Planck’s era.

Finally, our universe is not “composed” of energy, but is a simple consequence of energy's manifestation.

This consequence would, then, have started at the Big-bang (10*-43 sec) when the centrifugal effect was “ripped” from the centripetal effect, creating a “flat space” topology.

Our universe would be, at this point, a “dynamic space field” instead of an “energy space field”. And this “dynamism” is expressed by the “universal expansion” that we observe.

It’s easier to understand if you consider the “Planck era” as a shotgun that shoots scattering pellets at the instant of the Big-bang (the pellets being neutrinos defining distances and trajectories):

http://www.centpapiers.com/wp-content/u ... 10x204.png

But this description concerns only the “space factor” of our universe. Knowing that our universe is “space-time”, what about its “time factor”?

It’s rather simple.

At the instant of the Big-bang, the totality of energy that will ever exist manifested itself; and it was “kinetic energy”.

It’s obvious that all existing “kinetic” energy will result in the “maximal speed” that can be attained; and that speed is “lightspeed”. Nothing can go faster in the universe because there isn’t enough energy in Planck’s era to increase it more.

We know that at lightspeed, time “freezes”.

We also know that “lightspeed” represents the traveling distance of 10*-35 meter in 10*-45 second.

This indicates that, in our Euclidean universe, a “present moment” lasts 10*-43 second, and a “punctual point” volume possesses a diameter of 10*-35 meter.

Which informs us that, in the “view” of the universal totality, time is “frozen” in a constant “present moment”.

The next question becomes:

Why do we perceive “time” as a continual succession of “present moments”?

The answer is obvious: it’s simply because we are standing in a “gravitational field”, where “lightspeed” expansion doesn’t exists. In a “gravitational field”, massive particles cannot have “lightspeed”.

As for the question: what would happen if one of us was transferred into “lightspeed expanding space” where there is no “gravitational field”?

The answer is an impossible situation since each of our body possesses “mass energy” and will always be protected inside its own “gravitational field”.

André Lefebvre

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 9th, 2019, 9:27 am
That "somewhere else" i'm talking about does exist.

For those who would say that the "Planck era" is from the past and doesn't exist anymore, I'm afraid that they are wrong.

If you look at any photo of the "Cosmic microwave background" that stands at 13,7 billion light-years from us, you have to accept that this "wall of light" does exist today even if it appeared 13,7 billion years ago.

So, if you go back a little bit more, namely 270,000 years behind that "light wall", you'll find the "existing" Big-bang; and just behind that, a little bit sooner, stands the "existing" Planck era.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 27th, 2019, 1:24 pm
My “T model” for Astrophysics I’ve just come back from a vacation to a French “scientific” discussion. I should have stayed home. The vacation lasted 2 weeks before I was “banished” from two discussions because my ideas were “perturbing” the exchanges.

And I’m leaving out the insignificance of the retorts, I had to “put up to”, from those “knowledgeable” persons. Sadly enough, quite a bit of those were french scientists; so they said. This was my second serious try to exchange with them. I’m afraid that there will never be a third try. Which is very hard on me because I’m a “French speaking Québécois” that defends is language in our vast sea of English speaking community.

Anyway, there’s one thing positive that I learned from them. Which is that the Newton notion, that “bugs” me so much, was only a “model” to explain things. And the same is said for the Einstein “model”. This “model" definition is what makes acceptable whatever doesn’t concord between the two models. Too bad they didn’t accept to discuss my own “model”.

And this is what started my actual action.

I’ve decided to present my own “T-Model”; “T” being for “TOE”. In other words, my “T model” is a “model” for a “Theory Of Everything”. So, there’s nothing to get excited about, it’s only a “model” to explain things; right?

This “T-model” should solves everything, including the “Planck era” problem which is behind the limit of our “scientist’s accessibility”.

Scientists cannot access to that era because they use mathematics; and mathematics collapses when it reaches Planck’s time, length, energy etc.

So I’ll use a different tool. I’ll use the tool of which, Galileo said, is the only one capable of explaining all events in nature.

Let’s see if he was right.

As I promised, we will start at Time = zero; which means that energy is at “zero”. Consequently there is no temperature existing; which is “zero Kelvin”.

Consequently, the first drawing as to be regarding “Time” which naturally, starts at “zero”. That’s a limit which even time cannot cross. So let’s draw a “time arrow” and add-in the information we have, today, from science: Wow! Galileo was right! Just by drawing a simple line, we get a lot of information that science doesn’t really take into consideration.

1- Time had to start at “zero”, when absolutely nothing existed.

2- The Big-bang was a manifestation of energy. So this energy had to accumulate before the Big-bang in order to manifest itself. This means that the energy accumulated during Planck’s era (A) and the Big-bang occurred at Planck’s time (10^-43 second).

3- From that moment (at Planck time) our universe started to exist (B) and expanded until today, still expanding toward the future.

This is the “Time” story of our universe. And it cannot be otherwise; which doesn’t seem complicated at all; we have to admit.

But what about the energy creation period?

How could energy be created and furthermore, how could it accumulated to its maximum?

We all know that no energy was ever “created” since the Big-bang.
On the other hand, luckily for us, no energy ever disappeared since the Big-bang either.

This is the so called “Principle of mass conservation” and since mass = energy it should be called “Principle of energy conservation”.

Either way, our universe is a “closed system” even if it is expanding; because nothing else exists around it; not even space.

And since this energy’s manifestation, at the Big-bang, is responsible for the “expansion in all directions” from everywhere, this energy has to be “kinetic”.

“Kinetic” means “motion”; so the creation of that energy has to be related to “motion”.

There are only four kinds of motion that exist (vibration is the same as the following first two kinds of motions):

1- Up and down motion (vibration)
2- Sideways motion (vibration)
3- To and fro motion
4- Rotating motion. (rotation)

There is only one of those four kinds of motion that increases “speed”; which means increases “energy”. And that is the “rotating motion”.

In a rotation, speed increases tangentially in the direction of the rotation.

Let’s check with a drawing once again: It’s easy to see that the “D” balls have to travel a longer distance than the “C” balls, which travels a longer distance than the “B” balls. So there is an increase in speed the farther you are from the center (“A” ball).

But this event is not really increasing speed; because all different speeds are stable and aren’t increasing. So how can we explain increasing energy?

It’s pretty simple if you forget whatever Newton has put in your mind for a minute.

First of all. There is no centrifugal or centripetal “forces” involved. Whatever is involved are simply “effects” produced by the rotating motion. Calling them “forces” will only blur you mind.

The first “effect” to appear, when the rotation starts, is the centrifugal effect. If you spin fast enough, your hairs will be projected away from your scalp. And if they are not rooted firmly, you will lose them. So there is no “centripetal effect” involved beside the fact that your hairs are attached to your head.

This being cleared, let’s find out what could have started the rotation when energy was at “zero”.

The "Quantum dynamic" model will supply the answer with its vacuum energy notion.

Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. The vacuum energy is a special case of zero-point energy in a zero point field that relates to the quantum vacuum.

Zero-point energy (ZPE) is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have. Which means that even at zero Kelvin there is still a bit of energy existing.

This is the bit of energy that is enough to start our rotation. And since there is nothing else existing beside it, it will be that energy itself that will start rotating.

By rotating, it will start to expand. This expansion isn’t applied to a “volume”; it starts from a “point” and “creates” a “surface”.

Let me explain that.

A “zero point” is a non-existing point. You cannot see it because it is not there. The other reason is that you can never “see” energy anyway. So even if there’s a bit of energy, it cannot be observed. This non-observed energy is present, even before the geometrical “punctual” point ever appears, which is the first dimension in geometry.

So, even if we cannot see it, we will figure it as a non-solid “point” that starts rotating.

In order to “see” what happens, let’s imagine that you are making a pizza. If you’re good at it, you will throw the “pasta” in the air to enlarge it and make it perfectly round. It is the centrifugal effect that expands evenly your rotating pizza dough.

And while expanding, the circumference of your pizza will increase speed as it increases its diameter.

Check this video:

Now, for our mathematics buffs, here is how to calculate tangential speed:

First you take the diameter and multiply it by “pi” which is 3.1416 (approximately)

So if you have a diameter of 5 inches the circumference will be 5 x 3.1416 = 15.708 inches.

Then you divide the circumference by the time it takes for one complete rotation. We had 10 seconds in our drawing; so 15.708 inches divided by 10 seconds = a speed of 1.5708 inches by second.

Therefore when your pizza expands to 10 inches, you get 10 x 3.1416 = 31.416 inches of circumference; divide by 10 seconds = 3.1416 inches per seconds.

Has you can see, the speed of the pizza’s circumference doubled while its diameter doubled. Thus there really is an increase of energy supplied by the rotation.

But even this speed increase isn’t as fast as the speed increase during the Planck era. The difference is that the quantity of your pizza dough doesn’t change while rotating; which is not the case of our starting bit of energy.

When we have that bit of energy that starts rotating, it doesn’t disappear after the first rotation, but keeps doing its kinetic action. So when the second rotation starts, the increase of kinetic energy produced by the rotation, adds itself to the starting bit of energy. Which makes energy “accumulate” and speed increases a lot faster. Let’s see the event in a drawing. I’ll draw the added energy coming from underneath the energy’s surface: Let me explain the drawing.

A, B and C are moments in time; let’s say: 1st turn, 2nd turn and 3rd turn.

At “A”, there is only a bit of energy involved, and it makes a full rotation increasing the tangential speed (kinetic energy).

So at “B” (start of second turn), all the kinetic energy present takes action, which doubles the amount of kinetic energy first involved.

The same event occurs at “C”, but then, it’s the previous doubled kinetic energy that doubles; so you have four times more energy than at the first rotation.

This constant adding of kinetic energy increases speed on top of the created rotating tangential speed (which is the second factor of the event) that already doubles at every turn.

So if we put a value of “1” to the initial energy “point”, after the first completed rotation you get double speed = 2, plus the double value of energy increase which totals 4 times the initial energy value. And then, this 4 times more energy value starts to operate.

At the end of the second rotation, you get an injection of double speed of 4 = 8 times more than the initial energy plus the value of 8 added tangential kinetic energy that, then, starts to operate; which is a total of 16 times more than the initial kinetic energy.

So in just two rotations starting with a value of “1” you increase to a value of “16”.

There should be a formula to calculate this increasing “ratio”; but I don’t even want to think about it. I leave it to specialists.

The important fact is that we’ve found the operation that increased the start of our zero point energy.

And this increase of kinetic energy kept on going during all the Planck era.

The next question that comes to mind is:

Why did it stop at Plank’s time (10^-43 sec)?

I’ll get to this question in my next post.

If anything is wrong in this post don't hesitate to point it with an explanation of your objection; please.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 28th, 2019, 10:44 pm
Scientists cannot access to that era because they use mathematics; and mathematics collapses when it reaches Planck’s time, length, energy etc.

Mathematics is not subject to time, length or energies. Among other things, mathematics is subject to a level of understanding. Mathematics may reach a point beyond ones comprehension, but that is not to say it collapses.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 28th, 2019, 11:18 pm
Thank you for the correction Watson.

Let's say that at the so called "singularity", mathematics has problems.

Glad someone found something wrong in my "T model".

I choose this name because the "T model" was a car accessible to everybody.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 29th, 2019, 8:19 am
My “T model” for Astrophysics (2)

To resume what we’ve just seen, let’s enumerate the “facts” we have met:

1- Energy accumulated because of a rotating “motion”
2- This energy was kinetic
3- The “effect” of the energy’s rotation was Centrifugal

Naturally, the next question that comes to mind is:

Why did it stop at Plank’s time (10^-43 sec)?

Let’s see what we have when Planck time occurs.

What is the state of “things” just before the Big bang?

This is a drawing of our “bubbling” kinetic energy surface in rotation: The “bubbling” impression is given by the fact that we are in front of a kinetic energy event that possesses one single feature; meaning “motion”. And this “motion’s potential trajectory” starts from everywhere towards everywhere.

On top of that fact, we have the rotating motion of the event itself, which is oriented counterclockwise. This rotation defines the centrifugal “effect” we have just seen.

Now to get our answer to why the energy creation stopped at the Big-bang, I will ask a Chinese friend of mine to present us what he calls a Tai-Chi graphic which will represent our "bubbling" surface; First, we have to note the direction of the rotation (counterclockwise) which is confirmed by the two trailing part of both “water drops” composing the drawing.

Those “water drops” will represent the two “factors” produced by a rotation:

a) The active “centrifugal effect” we already have observed and

b) A passive “effect” habitually called “centripetal effect” that we will analyse right away.

Let’s settle this active/passive description.

Coming back to imagining our solely existing energy surface in rotation, we observe a centrifugal “effect”. So, undoubtedly, this “effect” is “real”; it does exist. In fact, today we use this rotating “effect” to help us sending rockets in space by “blasting off” from sites the closest possible to the equator.

Well, just as perceived when we experienced with your hairs, being kept by you while rotating, for the sole reason that they are “rooted to your scalp”, there is no “real” centripetal “effect”. The reason our “energy surface” stays as a “whole” despite the acting centrifugal “effect”, isn’t because there’s something holding it together; but simply because there is nothing else that exists. So there’s no possibility to be separated by anything. The centripetal “effect” isn’t real; the most we can say about it is that it is a “passive” inertness; it doesn’t “act”. In fact, this “passive effect” is very close to the “weight notion”; but we will not be able to pin point this allegation before we get to the “gravitational effect” further on.

This last conclusion modifies Newton’s third law quite a bit; because simple “inertia” replaces his “reacting force”.

Note that our finding, here, is exactly the contrary of what Newton found with his own “model”. To Newton, the centripetal “force” was real, while the centrifugal “force” was “fictitious”. This is the kind of conclusions his “force” notion brings our mind to make. It might be a “nice” model; but it’s only superficially logical and lacking in precision (in both ways, mathematical and intellectual).

Finally, what we found during Planck era amounts to three “facts”:

1- Accumulating Energy,
2- A Centrifugal active “effect” and
3- A Centripetal passive “inertness” status.

We also observed that the centrifugal active “effect” appeared before the centripetal passive “inertness”. To describe the “action” we could say: It had to “move” (take action) in order to, afterward, “be”. Which makes the “active” portion stronger than the “passive” inertness. A more realistic and undoubtedly logical way to see it, is that “action” is more dynamic than “inertness”.

The result is that the centrifugal effect can never be prevented from “acting”, by a “passive” response. So, from now on, when you push on a wall, the wall stays “inert” and doesn’t stop you from keeping “pushing” (and certainly doesn’t push back). This specifically tells us that the accumulation of “speed” (meaning: energy) in Planck era, wasn’t restrained whatsoever by anything.

With all this in mind, let’s go back to my Chinese friend’s rotating Tai-Chi drawing.

All we have to do with this drawing is identify each “water drops” with either, the centrifugal acting “effect” and the centripetal “passive” inertness.

Let’s say that the black drop is the “passive inertness” while the white drop is the “active centrifugal effect”.

Since the “centrifugal effect” isn’t restricted in any way, the increasing energy of the constantly extending circumference keeps accumulating.

And since this “action” factor started before the “inertness” factor, there was a difference in intensity/response installed between the two factors (resulting in the fact that “inertness” was augmenting slower than “action”); and that difference in intensity augmented at the same ratio as both factors.

This phenomenon brought the Planck era event to a point where the difference in intensity became so great that the “passive inertness” couldn’t restrain the “centrifugal effect” from releasing itself, and being projected in all directions. The time of this scission event was 10^-43 second after Time = zero. We call it: The Big-bang moment.

This projection of the centrifugal effect in all directions (from everywhere), was what created our three dimensional “space”; meaning the first “volume” ever. This confirms that “space” appeared AFTER “time”; and not at the same moment of the Big-bang.

Another way to “present” this episode would be: the centrifugal effect being released in all directions, created distances within a “space volume”.

Just as soon as this “scission” between the centrifugal effect and its passive inertness occurred, the initial rotation was cancelled, so the “speed” stopped increasing and the “energy” stopped accumulating.

But while the “active” half of our Tai chi drawing was projected in all directions, the other half reacted in a backlash, as a normal inertness aptitude would, and adopted a contrary rotating direction to the one it had previously. And both kept getting "bigger"; the centrifugal part by propulsion expanding in a volume and the "centripetal inert part" by extension of its surface caused by the rotation it adopted.

This phrase is a bit complicated to visualize; so I guess we need a drawing to simplify its understanding. We will use the “rotating balls” drawing to picture the event: This Big-bang “incident” resulted in defining two observed facts in our universe:

1- The maximum energy attained its limit.
2- The maximum possible speed attained its limit.

But there is an additional, but very subtle, “fact” that we must be aware of:

Which is: “The new space volume created wasn’t “energy”; it was solely an “effect” resulting from the kinetic energy in Planck’s era”.

Consequently, the energy itself wasn’t transferred into our universe; only the “motion” (the resulting work) produced by the kinetic energy manifested as the universe was transferred. And, still today, our universe undergoes the constant “effect” of this kinetic energy still standing behind Planck’s time, in the Planck era. This constant “action” is what produces the universe’s expansion. It is also the underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe, that we call “vacuum energy”. The proof is that this “vacuum energy” of quantum dynamic is “virtual”.

So let’s add right away this third “fact” that we observed:

3- Our universe is not composed of energy; its “dynamism” is simply resulting from the “action” of the underlying vacuum energy of Planck era.

Now can we quantise those three facts?

1 and 2 are easy to quantise, because we already know those numbers.

1) The maximum energy is the Planck energy constant = 10^19 GeV (Gigaelectronvolt) which is:
10, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 electronvolts.

2) As for the maximum speed, it's easy to understand that a maximum of kinetic energy produces a maximum speed impossible to be overcome because it requires all the existing energy. And this maximum speed is known as “lightspeed” that is 299, 792, 458 meters per second. Which is equivalent to a Planck length traveled within a Planck time (approx. 10^-35 meter in 10^-43 second).

As for

3) The universe’s dynamism should be manifested by the maximum energy of Planck’s era; meaning at lightspeed. But we will have to verify this postulate a bit later in a further post.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 30th, 2019, 9:23 am
My “T model” for Astrophysics (3)

So we’re now facing the Big-bang that made our universe appear at 10^-43 second after Time = zero.

This event is only half of the whole event we observed during the Planck era. It is exclusively the “projected” centrifugal motion produced by the accumulated total energy attained at 10^-43 second after time = zero.

The change that occurred at that moment is that, half of the former “rotating motion” was transformed in a full “forward expanding motion”.

Let’s compare drawings showing the slight difference: The drawing on the left is a surface full of kinetic energy, while the drawing on the right is the motion “resulting” in a volume, produced by the kinetic energy’s “action” of the Planck era, manifested at Planck time.

Now we’ve already seen that this “motion” was manifested at lightspeed; and we’ve also seen that lightspeed means traveling a distance of 10^-35 meter in 10^-43 second.

This means that the first volume of “space” ever to appear had a diameter of 10^-35 meter. This diameter could not be shorter, since its distance was defined by the already attained maximum speed of the moment; slower speed didn’t exist at that precise moment.

This statement explains that the first expanding motion (the dispersion in lower picture) at the instant of the Big-bang is what was observed by the Planck satellite; scientists called it the “radiance period”: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.06205.pdf

This “radiance period” lasted until 10^-36 second after time = zero. Then started “inflation” which lasted until 10^-32 second after time = zero. After that moment, Planck satellite shows the appearance of the “focusing” motion. This “focusing motion is observed where baryonic matter “resides” (it has a higher temperature). Which tells us that the blue spots is where no baryonic matter can be found.

We will now “see” (imagine) what could have happened between 10^-43 second and 10^-36 second.

This period is called the “radiance period”, because it implies exclusively the “expansion” of the universe. “Inflation” started only at 10^-36 second after time = zero; as Planck satellite also observed.

We’ve already seen that a shorter length than 10^-35 meter was impossible to exist; which determined the diameter of the very first volume of space that appeared animated with the expanding motion as our drawing as shown: And since a shorter length couldn’t appear before another 10^-43 second had elapsed, the following was the expanding result 10^-43 second after the Big-bang: So at the Big-bang we had one volume of 10^-35 meter in diameter, and 10^-43 second later, we had 12 additional volumes of 10^-35 meter in diameter.

This is the “reproduction ratio”, which is not a “speed”, for each basic volume of space, where every one of them has 10^-35 meter in diameter. So the reproduction ratio is “12 for 1” per 10^-43 second.

To be perfectly clear, the “speed” of expansion of each space volumes is constant at lightspeed; but the “ratio” of reproduction of basic space volumes is: 12 for 1 volumes per 10^-43 second. This is a “fact” that can be “seen” only with geometry. Mathematics cannot show this undeniable “fact”, I don’t think so. On the other hand, mathematics can most surely supply a formula that can calculate the future results implied by such a “ratio”.

And these results are going to be far greater than what redshift gives for type 1a supernovae; because type 1a supernovae have “inertness” that prevents them to have “lightspeed”; and even if they had lightspeed, the ratio” of reproduction of space volumes represents, after a certain distance in space, a growth of that distance superior to what lightspeed can travel.

It will also give à result exceeding enormously what we are actually given to the expansion rate.

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/uni ... te-mystery

Furthermore, the so named “acceleration” between type 1a supernovae and us is a “deceitful” expression. “Acceleration” is related to “speed”; but the observed event is related to the “space reproduction” ratio; which isn’t a “speed” at all.

Fortunately, this “fact” relieves us of a big problem; because we don’t have to search for any added “dark energy” coming from nowhere to explain the wrong notion of this expanding “acceleration”. There’s a great economy involved here. Economy of dollars which could serve for more serious research.

As for now, our research doesn't cost anything; so we will keep observing "freely" what happened afterward, in my next post.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: November 30th, 2019, 9:31 am
As you will probably note, my "T Model" improved a lot while discussing some of its features. In fact, this "model" is the result of my being here during the last four years.

When I started, I had no idea it could result in such a clear view, at least for me, of the "birth" and the "evolution" of our universe.

I cannot express the amount of gratitude I feel for participating to this forum. My thanks to all of you.

André Lefebvre

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 1st, 2019, 1:20 pm
My “T model” for Astrophysics (4)

The previous post ended when the time was at (2 x (10^-43)) second.

Let’s have a look at the picture when the next 10^-43 second expired.

Remember that each of the existing basic space volumes reproduces at the ratio of 12 for 1 space volume. In the next drawing we will consider only a 2D picture of the following 10^-43 second event (a 3D picture would show 13 x 12 = 156 basic space volumes), which will supply us with information pretty surprising: First thing that jumps to our eyes is the trajectories of the expanding motion (in red) that leave some of the newly appeared volumes of space (in white) not directly affected.

There’s no question that those white space volumes where produced the same way as the other ones (by the centrifugal effect); but they clearly stand outside of the main expanding motion process of the overall event.

So what does that imply?

First, since these non-affected space volumes are also going to reproduce themselves because they are just as animated by the kinetic energy effect as all the other space volumes, this tells us that the instant of this 3rd reproduction, is their birth-date from which their personal reproduction starts, giving them their own “time arrow”.

Second, their positions are the perfect “spot” where the “inert” centripetal factor can install itself, since they stand out of exterior influence.

So let’s see what happened to that other factor that stayed back in Planck era.

We’ve seen that this half portion of our Tai Chi drawing reacted in a backlash and adopted a contrary rotating direction to the one it had previously; so it started rotating clockwise.

How can we describe it?

A) It is a surface in rotation.

B) It is, also, an “inert, passive” energy. Simply because everything that was “rotating” in that Planck era was energy.

But how can energy be “inert”?

The only possible answer is that: This energy is “inert” because its kinetic direction is “focusing” towards one point instead of “dispersing” from everywhere towards everywhere. We could say that its “action” is “self-centered”; which should make it independent of outside influence (I guess we’ll find out, eventually, if that’s really the case). Surprisingly, this “focusing aptitude” is relevant to “keeping everything as a whole”. In other words, it’s a “centripetal effect” aptitude.

C) This “focusing energy” had already gained lightspeed at 10^-43 sec, just as the “projected active motion” had; so when it started rotating clockwise, it did so at lightspeed. Consequently, after a completed rotation, its lightspeed energy had multiplied by itself; representing the intensity of its “focusing energy”.

D) During this completed rotation, it had also doubled its “size” which originally was half of the needed diameter to appear in our universe. Doubling the length of its diameter's effect made it appropriate to manifest itself in our three-dimensional space.

So, the 2nd period of 10^-43 second of our universe’s life was used by the “inert, passive energy”, in Planck era, to double its diameter’s length and increase its focusing energy effect.

Now having the proper diameter for its surface, its effect appeared inside our universe at the 3rd period of 10^-43 second, and couldn’t install itself elsewhere than where the main “active motion” wasn’t “influencing”.

So the next drawing is the situation in which this “focusing surface effect” found itself: As we can see, the focusing surface, even if it’s not standing in a main event expanding effect trajectory, is still subjected to the “inner centrifugal effect” of the space volume it occupies. And we can clearly observe that this “centrifugal effect” is pulling each faces of the “focusing surface”.

So we can imagine what happened afterward to this “focusing surface”. Let’s see it in another drawing: A) This part of the drawing represents the moment when both faces of our focusing surface are ripped for each other by the inner "centrifugal effect". Having lost their resistance on one side, their focusing effect made both faces recoil on themselves producing two “focusing volumes”.

B) And since the diameter of the former surface of 10^-35 meter was the shortest length possible to exists, it had to keep the same diameter for each new produced volume.

C) Two volumes replacing one surface, inside the original space volume, made this space volume inflate significantly in one shot (it, at least, double it). This is what startedinflation”.

D) So we, now, can “date” this event at 10^-36 second after time = zero, as when inflation started. We will see that inflation was far from finished.

But this isn’t all; we can also identify the initial “focusing surface effect” that transformed itself into two “focusing volumes”. The “focusing surface effect” is the boson we call a Gluon, which “decays”, 75% of the time into a Top and antiTop quarks.

Furthermore, we now can understand why a gluon doesn’t have “mass”; simply because it’s a bi-dimensional “surface”, and mass is limited to three-dimensional “volumes”.

As for the quasi particle, also without mass, related to the “expanding motion” of our universe, I’m tempted to identify it with the neutrino that travels at “almost” the speed of light. The main reason is that its “helicity” is “left handed” which means that it “spins” in the contrary direction of its motion’s trajectory. Which is the normal result from the counterclockwise rotation projected by the “centrifugal effect” from Planck era.

We are now confronted to a very important question that science was able to answer recently with one of their “model”, naming: the origin of “mass”. They used the “Higgs field” model to explain the process.

I must say that no one can verbalize clearly what this process is. Only “mathematicians” say they really can understand it "mathematically".

We will answer the same question with my “T Model” that wants to be accessible to everybody.

But that will be in my next post.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 3rd, 2019, 5:58 pm
Is somebody fooling around with my posts? I can'y post anymore.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 3rd, 2019, 11:40 pm
My “T model” for Astrophysics (5)

Before continuing, we have to verify something.

I think there might be another “adjustment” going to appear to my T-Model. Every time I prepare a post something pups up to help me understand better or bring down the whole concept.

I always get a “funny” feeling when I look at my drawing of the 3rd (10^-43 sec) event. The reason is that I’ve never drawn the complete “reproduction” of the 7 first “basic space volumes” (in 2D) as logic really demanded it. So I’ve never “seen” the implication of its overall geometry.

Furthermore, I don’t know if this 3rd event representing 3 times (10^-43 sec) is enough to expand the universe at 10^-15 meter, which should be the size of the universe when the Gluon appears.

So let’s have another look.

This is the result attained at the 2nd “space” reproduction event; in other words: at the second “present moment” of 10^-43 sec: As we can see, since each dots are created space, there are many “no-space” intervals between the space volume productions. So how must we “comprehend” this event?
My first comment is that it has the “shape” of the first snowflake that was ever photographed in 1885. But I can’t see any relations except that the pattern exists in nature; it's called a "snowflake". My next comment is to remember that this “situation” lasted only one “present moment” (10^-43 sec) in an “activity” of succeeding creative “present moments”. So I guess we can accept those “no-space” intervals as part of the event’s evolution.

But those “no-space” intervals cannot last more than one “present moment”; which means that they have to be “filled” (spatially confirmed) at the precise following “present moment”.

The last comment would be that the “angle changes”, that we observed, for two of the centrifugal effect trajectories, in regard to the horizontal trajectory, is provoked by the active effect of energy, since it occurs before the appearance of the “inert” centripetal effect (Gluon). This eliminates my reluctance to have an “inert” factor “doing” something.

It is now evident that this “centripetal effect” would install itself in those “no-space positions” (with no influence) which agree with its “inertness”.

So let’s see what happens at the next “present moment”: We can see that the previous existing “space volumes” have reproduced themselves and our “inert centripetal effect” (red dots) has appeared in the universe.

The “inert” surfaces are localized where we have red dots. All the other “pink dots” are previous and new “no-space” locations.

How can we accept that our “inert” surfaces occupy all those “no-space” locations?

Personally I can’t justify it clearly yet. But since our “inert particle” is a Gluon, if I ask science, I get this answer:

A Gluon is a boson; and a boson possesses an aptitude that is “special”.

As the quantum concentration depends on temperature, most systems at high temperatures obey the classical (Maxwell–Boltzmann) limit, unless they also have a very high density”. Which is exactly the “state” of our gluon at the beginning of the universe; the density is extreme.

This means that regardless of the high temperature of the moment, our gluon responds to the Bose–Einstein statistics which “describe one possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting (inert), indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states”.

The Bose–Einstein statistics apply only to those particles not limited to single occupancy of the same state—that is, particles that do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle restrictions. Such particles have integer values of spin (full spin) and are named bosons, after the statistics that correctly describe their behavior. There must also be no significant interaction between the particles.

So, our “Gluon surface” stands accordingly to these restrictions; it has a full spin (the complete clockwise rotation from Planck era) and is “inert” which means it doesn’t interact with other particles.

Since our boson isn’t limited to occupy a single location, it then can influence all of the “no-space” locations existing when it appeared in our universe. This is why science says that the “effectiveness” of the Gluon covers all the universe existing when it appeared (diameter of 10^-15 m). Which is the size of an atomic nucleus. Just imagine the “density” it had; actually the diluted density of the universe gives a temperature of 2.73 Kelvin over absolute zero; which is absolute Cold. Absolute Hot is given by Max Planck as being approx. 10^32 Kelvin. Around 10^32 K, particle energies become so large that gravitational forces between them would become as strong as other fundamental forces.

So we cannot neglect the “fact” that, just after the Big-bang, the “gravitational effect” was a lot more “effective” than it seems to be today (note the effect of the density; we will encounter it again later). We should nuance our conviction that “gravity” is the weakest “force” existing. Approximately 10^38 times weaker than the strong interaction, 10^36 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 10^29 times weaker than the weak interaction; but that is in today's environment. The reality is that at the time when those imagined forces operated to produce "particles", the density/temperature was so great that “gravity” didn’t need any other “force” to do the job at hand and "hold particles together.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 4th, 2019, 12:04 am
My “T model” for Astrophysics (6)

My last post told us that the universe at this precise moment was as big as an atomic nucleus.

Now the next “present moment” arrived and things started to change. Our Gluon surface’s faces where thorn from each other and “inflation” started.

Let’s see what this "inflation" consist of.

Inflation is caused by a series of events happening inside our “non-influenced” locations occupied by the gluons (but not the “no-space” locations). Thus, it doesn't have any relation with "expansion". Those two events operate simultaneously and "expansion" never stopped.

As you will notice, the size of the Top and antiTop quarks are 10^-35 meter; but they are “massive particles” so they produce a “gravitational field” as big as the influence of their original Gluon; which is 10^-15 m in diameter. So in these drawings, we will observe strictly the “Gravitational fields” of the incoming particles that always keep the same volume of influence, thus increasing the previous volume of influence (previous gravitational field).

Here are those events:    The Standard model separates particles in three “families” (Quarks, Leptons & Bosons); but what is really important is that it also separates them in three generations.

What is not mentioned sufficiently is that each generation is “born” inside the previous generation starting with the Gluon’s centripetal (towards the center) influential surface.

So if we make a drawing of the three generations of the quark’s “gravitational fields”, we get the following picture: And to me this previous structure is the same as the one we observe in our galaxy: Wasn’t it a good thing to think it over once again (even if it took two posts to do it)?

We’ve found the proof that none of the so called “fundamental forces” are needed to explain Astrophysics. I think it was worth spending the time.

I’ll go work on my next post.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 5th, 2019, 12:15 pm
My “T model” for Astrophysics (7)

The “instant” when the 3rd “present moment” appeared in our universe is the instant when this universe changed its “nature”.

Before that instant, the universe had a “radiance” nature (confirmed by Planck satellite); but a change occurred at 10^-36 sec. when the gluon adopted the whole existing universe as the “range” of its “effectiveness”. The universe became electromagnetic.

We know that electromagnetism consists of a magnetic field installed perpendicularly to an electronic field. This is what we observe today.

Naturally, this observation, of today, is the final “result” that came after a period of evolution at the time it happened. So what exactly was the changes that occurred during that “evolution” period?

This is the drawing of the “appearing event” of the gluon in the universal expanding space of the time: As we can easily observe, all 6 gluons (G) that appeared, were installed perpendicularly to one of the three expansion trajectories: G-1 to E-1, G-2 to E-3, G-3 to E-2, G-4 to E-1, G-5 to E-3 and finally G-6 to E-2.

So the first phase of electromagnetism’s evolution was the “centripetal effectinstalled perpendicularly to the “centrifugal effect”.

For us, today, naming the centripetal effect a “magnetic field” describes the event perfectly enough; but naming the centrifugal effect an “electronic field” doesn’t describe the event with precision at the instant electromagnetism appeared; because at that moment, electrons didn’t even exist.

Once again, we have to note that our observation of “electromagnetism” was established by Hendrik Lorentz, after a lot of work by previous scientists; but it doesn't give the information of how it came to be; only of what was observed as a “fact”. And admitting the existence of a "fact" is far from "understanding" that "fact".

Furthermore, this “fact” was considered as a “force” called either “Lorentz force” or “electromagnetic force”.

Let’s have a look at how it was then described (and still is):

In physics (specifically in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force (or electromagnetic force) is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge (zero dimensional) due to electromagnetic fields”.

So, putting aside the “force notion”, we can say that our previous drawing represents what is called the “electromagnetic field” in this description of “electromagnetism”.

And since our gluon with a diameter of 10^-35 meter, being a boson, acquired an effectiveness to the size of the whole universe existing at that moment, which had a diameter of 10^-15 meter (effective range of the so-called “strong” nuclear force), we clearly observe a “magnetism effect” (centripetal) overriding perpendicularly a “diffusing effect” (centrifugal). This means that the first phase of electromagnetism appeared when the universe had a diameter of 10^-15 meter. And since this was the limit range of the “centripetal effect”, the centrifugal effect continued the expansion of the universe without any influential obstruction; but adopted the new “nature” of electromagnetism. The universe became electromagnetic.

This is how electromagnetism looks like: For the motion, see:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroma ... Colors.gif<

Definition: “Electromagnetic waves are waves that are created as a result of vibrations between an electric field and a magnetic field. In other words, EM waves are composed of oscillating magnetic and electric fields”.

An electromagnetic wave can travel through anything; be it air, a solid material or vacuum. It does not need a medium to travel from one place to another”. Which is an observed “fact” unexplained. But the explanation is rather simple. The reason is that the whole universe is in an electromagnetic “state. We could even consider that the whole universe is a single “big photon”.

“EM waves are 'transverse' waves”.

All the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum are electromagnetic radiating waves. Including light which is an electromagnetic wave: So what happened afterward, in research, to involve electrons in the process?

This involvement of electrons is a bit “blurred” when we look at the “electronics’ definition”:

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter”.

To my mind, “in vacuum and matter” means: “everywhere”; and since it is a “flow” of electrons, it means “motion… everywhere”, be it “electrons” or “whatever” which is in motion. And since the whole universe possesses an “expanding motion”, the whole universe is “electromagnetic” without any implication of electrons as its cause.

For example; if you’ve seen the motion “pattern” adopted by our solar system “cruising” through space, it adopts exactly the “pattern” presented for the electric field vector, presented previously.

https://www.universetoday.com/wp-conten ... o1_400.gif

Note that the objections are related to “the Sun leading planets”; which isn’t accurate. It’s the Sun’s “gravitational field” that moves as a “whole” with the orbiting planet’s “gravitational fields”. Planets and Sun are only “passengers” of their own field.

The simple “fact” observed is that electrons simply follow the “expanding motion” of the universe. And this “effect” on electrons, is what electronic is all about. Finally, we have to admit that electromagnetism is not a “force” in any way; it’s a simple “effect” caused by simple natural “facts”.

But there is something else that we have to indicate from our previous drawing.

Let’s see it once again: I naturally inscribe numbers to the gluons without even thinking about the sequence. But now I note that this instinctive distribution reveals the “full spin” (integer spin) rotation direction as being clockwise; which is the positive helicity of a gluon (I’ve just added the curved direction arrow in black).

https://www.bnl.gov/aum2018/content/wor ... licity.pdf

Conclusion:
2009 RHIC data have placed the strongest constraints on the gluon helicity and, for the first time, provide evidence for a positive gluon polarization for x > 0.05
”.

The question is:

Is the gluon’s polarization represents its “right handed” (positive) helicity?

In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the spin onto the direction of momentum. The helicity of a particle is right-handed if the direction of its spin is the same as the direction of its motion and left-handed if opposite.

On the other hand, massless particles may exist in just one helicity state. For example, neutrinos only exist in negative helicity states, known as left handed states. So we can represent “helicity” on a drawing, as a simple spinning ball.

Since the photon and gluon are massless, they cannot exist in a helicity zero state; and since they are bosons, they exist in an integer (full) helicity state.

Particles with integer helicity (full spin) are said to be transversely polarized and those with zero helicity are longitudinally polarized. So photons and gluons are transversely polarized.

In physics, a transverse wave is a moving wave whose oscillations (magnetic and electronic fields) are perpendicular to the direction of the wave. Electromagnetism is an example of a transverse wave, where the oscillations are the electric and magnetic fields motion. So we can understand that a gluon’s helicity is “transverse”; but is it “positive” or “negative”?

Let’s draw two particles moving in the same direction but having contrary helicity (here a rotation): For massless particles like photons and gluons, “chirality” is the same as “helicity” (which eliminates a lot of discussions). A given massless particle appears to spin in the same direction along its axis of motion regardless of point of view of the observer.

And since mathematically, helicity is the sign of the projection of the spin vector onto the momentum vector: “left” is negative and “right” is positive; so a gluon is “positive” meaning “right handed” as shown by the left side ball on our drawing.

In resume, we had already deduced that neutrinos where “left handed” because they originated from the counterclockwise rotation existing during the Planck era, and we, just the same way, deduced that the gluon was “right handed”, because of the normal backlash, after scission with that rotation, adopted a clockwise rotation.

So my “T-Model” isn’t bad at all, until now, after all.

Furthermore we seem to have discovered a similarity of motion pattern between an electromagnetic wave and our solar system; which tends to “generalize” all motions within the same pattern.

But I still have to “digest” the total implication of this last finding, I must say.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 6th, 2019, 10:18 am
My "T Model" of Astrophysics (8)

Inflation lasted from 10^-36 sec to 10^-32 sec. This is less than “a blink of the eye” time frame. But as extraordinary as it may seem, a lot of events happened during this period.

One of them was the “creation” of electrons.

In our science data collection we don’t have many experiences where electrons are “created”. Most of the time, they are “ejected”; except in one event that I’m certain of.

This event is when two gamma rays collide directly. The collision “produces” an electron (negative) and a positron (a positive electron) which weren’t involved before.

Let’s draw the event: The result is: I guess everybody can see where the “negative” and “positive” distinctions, between produced electron and positron, come from just by comparing the two drawings. If not, they come from the negative electronic fields and the positive magnetic fields. There is nothing else in a gamma ray.

But what are their “nature” exactly?

They are simply the different motion directions of each composites of the gamma rays that are separated.

The reason they separated was that both rays had the same propulsion intensity; and when they collided, those propulsion's intensity cancelled each other so the "ray" motions were “blocked”. Consequently, since the motion directions of each perpendicular fields where the only motions left, they couldn’t unite, being contrary to each other; so they were separated and propelled sideways.

And since these contrary motions were resulting from the vibrations of the previous gamma rays, they were not well defined “energy effect volumes” because a gamma ray wavelength ranges between 10^-14 m and 10^-8 m. partially overlapping X rays. So they are observed as “cloudy volumes” of energy effect.

OK. Now when did, exactly, this event happened?

We’ve seen that a Top quark decays into a Bottom quark plus a W+ boson. This decaying event was happening while the electromagnetic space was expanding, which, by the way, explains why the Top quark decayed; it was equalizing its own “inner density”, which was becoming too much, with the constant diluting density of its surrounding. So it expelled some energy “effect” creating a W+ boson, and transformed itself into a Bottom quark.

So the, just now, appeared Bottom quarks were all “floating” inside the electromagnetic space that was in lightspeed expansion. At the time, this lightspeed expansion was manifested by electromagnetic gamma rays.

So first, we have to understand how a gamma ray could appear in space.

It’s pretty simple to see, when you draw a bottom quarks inside a dynamic space where motion comes from everywhere: The result of collision of lightspeed expansion with the bottom quark is a “vibration” (a wave) of the electromagnetic space all around the bottom quark that spreads in all directions: These “waves” are electromagnetic gamma rays and they react just as “light rays” do. So let’s see what happens when these “rays” graze against other massive Bottom quarks.

We will consider only one direction of all of which are involved: And since those collisions happened all around the Bottom quarks (in 3 D), you can imagine the innumerable electrons/positrons that were “created”.

So electrons and positrons were “created” just after Bottom quarks appeared in our universe.

Bottom quarks were the first quarks that lasted long enough to “travel” a short distance in space; which means, to “exist” as bottom quarks long enough to provoke a reaction of its environment before it reacted itself to the constant diluting density of space.

The Top quarks didn’t last long enough to do so.

As to, if there was electrons/positrons “created” afterward, I would believe it couldn’t. Because all other particles that appeared afterward, were stationed inside the Bottom quarks “gravitational field” and in there, there is no expansion process occurring.

But I could be wrong here, even if I do not think so.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 7th, 2019, 2:22 pm
My “T-Model” of Astrophysics (9)

I must indicate that we are still observing the inflation period which isn’t finished yet. What we’ve witness until now is:

A) Just before this inflation started, we’ve seen the universe becoming electromagnetic.

And then :

B) We’ve seen that inflation started with the production of Top quarks.

C) We’ve seen the decay of Top quarks into Bottom quarks and W+ bosons.

D) And we’ve seen the “creation” of electrons.

The Inflation process was amplified by the increasing number of transformed particles by the decaying process inside each previous particles.

To have an idea of its importance, let’s just have a look at the gradual decaying of quarks:

Top = Bottom + W+ (boson) = Charm + AntiUp + gamma ray; Charm = Strange = Up + AntiUp + 2 Strange. While W+ boson = Bottom = Up + AntiDown. The Gamma ray = Charm + AntiCharm (+ AntiDown and Down) = Gluon = Strange + AntiStrange = Strange + Up + AntiUp and AntiStrange + Up.

As for

AntiTop = AntiBottom + W- (boson) = Charm + gamma ray = AntiStrange + Up = (another) AntiStrange + Up + Down + AntiDown. While W- boson = Muon + neutrino = AntiBottom = Neutrino + electron. The Gamma ray = Charm + AntiCharm.

And each of those massive particles were surrounded by a “gravitational field” of 10^-15 meter which had appeared inside the previous generation’s “gravitational field”. So the “gravitational fields" expanded tremendously in a fraction of a second (between 10^-36 sec and 10^-32 sec).

This is the explanation behind “inflation”; there was no “added” energy needed or manifested; only a simple decaying process consequent to the continuous exponential diluting density of the environment, provoked by the expansion of space.

At the end of the inflation, it seems that the only quarks occupying space were Up and Down quarks that compose matter today. But the “How” it happened is not explained clearly. Maybe the “T-Model” can do it. We’ll see.

Today, all we can observe is that, ordinary matter is composed of Up and Down quarks. I cannot tell you where the remaining Strange and AntiStrange quarks have gone yet; they probably decayed into Up and Down quarks, or were annihilated by their Antiparticles, since we don’t find them anymore.

We’ve already seen that all those quarks are distributed in three generations:

1st generation = Top and Bottom (plus their anti-particles)

2nd generation = Charm and Strange (plus their anti-particles)

3rd generation = Down and Up (plus their anti-particles).

This tells us that the only quarks remaining in the universe at the end of inflation were the ones of the third generation, since they were the result from decaying previous quarks.

So what happened to the “Charm, AntiCharm” and “Strange, AntiStrange” quarks left in the decaying process I've just describe?

This is when and where, the annihilation event comes into play.

Annihilation:

In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons”.

This is what is observed in our particle colliders; so we know that the process exists in reality.

But it doesn’t explain the event that happened at the beginning of our universe during or just after inflation.

Presently, the “annihilation period” is strictly related, by science, to the temperature of the universe to start the process. Personally, since I'm not an Alchemist, I prefer considering the “environment's density” which controls this temperature. Just remember that the environment's density changes the intensity of the incurring event; which makes the temperature obsolete.

Now on page 48 of the following link:

http://www.astro.utoronto.ca/~cczhu/EmbersonQual.pdf

You will find that Epochs are distinguished according to “forces” taking over, one after the other. Science cannot get rid of that “force notion” only because it wants to keep using the mathematics it procures. They don’t consider the difference between a “notion” for thinking from a “tool” for using.

Since we’ve seen that the “force notion” is a non-existing reality, this “chronological distribution” based on the “force notion” cannot be acceptable anymore.

But you will also find, in the link, that the only annihilation indicated is the Electron-Positron annihilation still according to the temperature existing at that moment (the temperature doesn’t seem to be indicated).

So I had to look somewhere else for quarks annihilation.

In physical cosmology, the hadron is a subatomic composite particle made of two or more quarks held together by the strong force (sic). The hadron epoch started approximately 10^−6 second after the Big Bang, when the temperature of the universe had fallen sufficiently to allow the quarks, from the preceding quark epoch, to bind together into hadrons.

As the temperature of the universe continued to fall, arrived a moment when most of the hadrons and anti-hadrons were then eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of hadrons. The elimination of anti-hadrons was completed by one second after the Big Bang (according to the decreasing temperature), when the following lepton epoch began
”.

The Lepton epoch:

"In physical cosmology, the lepton epoch was the period started roughly 1 second after the Big Bang, after the majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilated each other at the end of the hadron epoch. Approximately 10 seconds after the Big Bang the temperature of the universe had fallen to the point where most leptons and anti-leptons were eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of leptons".

So according to the decreasing temperature, Hadron's annihilation ended 1 second after the Big-band, while Lepton's annihilation ended roughly 10 seconds after the Big-bang.

But if we think about it, the Hadrons scientists talks about, are “composite particles”, not fundamental quarks. This means that “composite particles” were formed before 1 second had elapse starting at Time = zero.

But what happens if we leave aside the temperature factor, which is only a consequence of the energy effect’s density just as the other consequences in the event, and look at the exact cause of the event?

Annihilation is the result of particles confronting their Antiparticles. And this must have occurred a lot earlier than the Hadron epoch. In fact it had to occur during the last part of the “inflation period”. Which means that Hadrons were produced at that period and no 1 second afterward annihilation of Hadrons could have happened. The time frame seems to be wrong.

Furthermore, if there had been such a formidable annihilation event, we would observe, today, a "burst" of gamma rays all through the universe; which doesn't exist. So the annihilation event wasn't such a big deal after all.

Note that, in the “official” description we’ve seen above, there is no explanation for the small residue, of either Hadrons or Leptons, stated being left over. So all this isn’t a real description; it’s mainly a doubtful “plausible story”.

Let’s see if we can find a more plausible “explanation”.

Recent discoveries where made regarding the existence of some few exotic particles; beside these, mostly other exotic particles are “hypothetical”.

According to Gell-Mann’s model, there are two broad classes of hadrons. One is particles made of three quarks called baryons and the other particles made of a quark and an antiquark known as mesons”.

Until recently, baryons and mesons were the only types of hadrons that had been seen in experiments. However, back in the 1960s, Gell-Mann raised the possibility of more exotic combinations of quarks, such as tetraquarks (two quarks and two antiquarks) and pentaquarks (four quarks and one antiquark)”.

These next two types of exotic Hadron are now proven existing.

"In June 2013, the BES III experiment in China and the Belle experiment in Japan independently reported on Zc(3900), the first confirmed four-quark state" (Tetraquark).

"On 26 March 2019 the LHCb collaboration announced the discovery of a new pentaquark, based on observations that passed the 5-sigma threshold, using a dataset that was many times as large as the 2015 dataset".

So let’s see first what a Tetraquark looks like:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2 ... 105416.htm As you can see, since “forces” don’t exist, the four massive quarks are “encased” inside the “gravitational field” produced by the merging of each their own “gravitational fields”. Which means that quarks are not "glued" to one another but are "attached" to the Hadron's center of gravity. This is another different "fact" to what science proposes based on its "force notion".

But both these kind of quarks are of the second generation; and had disappeared at the end of inflation. So Tetraquarks cannot answer our question.

Let’s see a Pentaquark.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 9304009517 As you can see I’ve taken the liberty to install all previous findings in this drawing; naming the “centrifugal active effect” and the “centripetal inert effect”.

Quarks being “massive particles”, they install where the “active effect” is absent.

But we must remind ourselves that what we are observing here are “gravitational fields” inside a “getting bigger field”. Which means that each composing fields have a diameter of 10^-15 meter; which increases the Pentaquark’s gravitational field.

Now this drawing is quite interesting; because a Pentaquark is composed of five quarks which are components of two already known particles: A Charmonium Meson (1 charm and 1 AntiCharm quarks) + …"guess what”… a Proton.

We know that a Charmonium has a life of 10^-21 sec; while a Proton has a life longer than the age of our actual universe. This is quite an incentive to look forward into it.

But in order to survive the annihilation, these Charmoniums had to “evade” any collisions with their Antiparticle.

If we look closely at the structure of the Charmonium, this “evasion from collision” was no problem at all; because Charmonium cannot have any antiparticle.

Let me explain.

An Antiparticle is a particle that possesses the contrary particularity of its particle. For example, a positive Top quark has its antiTop quark, which is negative.

So our Pentaquark’s Anti-particle would then have to be composed of a Charm and AntiCharm quarks; which is the same as a Pentaquark. This simple case of the Charm quark annuls the possibility for the existence of an Anti-Pentaquark.

Mind you, there is always the possibility that a Charmonium unites with 2 Down + 1 Up quarks (which is a Neutron), but then we should find a neutron in the very first atom that appeared in the universe; and we do not, since Hydrogen is compose of strictly one Proton + one electron. And until now, the universe never produced anything that wasn’t instantly needed to evolve; which means that when the Proton appeared, the neutron wasn’t needed before the second atom (Helium) had to be produce.

Furthermore, there wasn’t any such kind of Pentaquark, composed of a Neutron, discovered yet.

Either way, we’ve found an “escape route” for the survival of an Hadron, protecting our Up and Down quarks, which evades the annihilation period of particles/antiparticles. So scientists don’t have to look for a discrepancy between the quantities of Hadrons anymore. That's another economy in their budget.

But we didn’t save the Leptons yet.

I guess we’ll have to wait for my next post.

### Re: A variable expansion speed theory of gravity Posted: December 8th, 2019, 2:15 pm
My “T-Model” for Astrophysics (10)

Lepton annihilation

We’ve already seen that according to “temperature”, scientists deduced that Leptons where about all annihilated 10 seconds after the Big-bang; which for them is “Time = zero”.

But we have also seen, with the “T-Model” that electrons and its Antiparticle the Positrons appeared between the incoming of Bottom quarks and the moment they decayed. And this was at the 5th “10^-43 sec” (5th present moment) after the Big-bang at 10^-43 s. Which is a lot sooner than 10 seconds after the Big-bang.

So what event could have “save” electrons from positrons during all that time?

Let’s see what happens when an electron collides with a positron:

They transform into an “energy effect”, in the form of two gamma rays (or two gamma photons if you prefer).

Which means, according to our previously seen production of electron/positron by two gamma rays collision, that this time it is the “motions” of the electron and the positron that are annulled; so the lightspeed expanding motion (vacuum energy’s effect) takes over and reproduces two gamma electromagnetic waves.

But this also means that electrons and positrons are never really annihilated; they are simply transformed in gamma rays that, eventually, re-collide transforming them into positrons and electrons once again.

But, why don’t we observe positrons anymore?

I’m not sure; but I think that, in fact, we might observe them; but we don’t recognize them.

Every time there is an ejection of an electron, it is exactly the same event as an insertion of a positron; and when we observe an insertion of an electron, it is the same event as an ejection of a positron. So positrons and electrons are much more “linked” to one another, than we are conscious of. Both are always present in our universe because their origin is the electromagnetism of the universe. Both are potentially "everywhere" as representatives of "magnetic" and "electronic" fields.

In 1928, Paul Dirac published a paper proposing that electrons can have both a positive and negative charge. This paper introduced the Dirac equation, a unification of quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the then-new concept of electron spin to explain the Zeeman effect. The paper did not explicitly predict a new particle but did allow for electrons having either positive or negative energy as solutions.

Quantum mechanics did not allow the negative energy solution to simply be ignored, as classical mechanics often did in such equations; the dual solution implied the possibility of an electron spontaneously jumping between positive and negative energy states. This would mean that electrons and positrons are the same particle depending of the “way” they are observed.

There is still a lot of experiments needed to really understand electron/positron particles. But if we scrutinize the next picture of a wave of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation, we can observe an "instant" in "space", of a simultaneous contrary motion of the magnetic and electronic fields. Zooming: And since the magnetic field is related to the positron and the electronic field, to the electron, we can understand the contrary equivalence of their “motion”; insertion of one is equivalent as the ejection of the other.

Maybe we will find another explanation later on in our description. We will have to wait.

Let’s see if we couldn’t solve some small problems encountered by our scientists with what we’ve already seen of our universe.

For example:
How is it possible that an object standing at 13 billion light-years from us in one direction be separated by 26 billion light-years with the object we observe at the same distance in the opposite direction?

The expansion of the universe cannot be faster than lightspeed; so how can both of those objects exist at the distance of 26 billion light years between each other in a 14 billion years old universe.?

And this seems to be an enormous problem for scientists.

Here is how they see the problem: The reason for their problem is that Time exists; it isn’t just an “imagined factor”; so you have to take "Time" into consideration in this problem. And taking Time in consideration is including the expansion factor “through time”, in the observation.

The result is the following: And so, we find that the problem doesn’t exists at all.

I’ll go prepare my next post.