Spectral Lines and Gravity

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Spectral Lines and Gravity

Postby Pivot on May 1st, 2018, 2:02 am 

A response (not from this forum) to my published paper ‘Relevance of Atomic Structure to the Physical Characteristics of Matter’ was the challenge to
use your model to calculate the energy levels for an electron in a hydrogen atom - quantum mechanics gives predictions in agreement with experimental results.
” After a bit of scratching around checking more about spectral line emissions, I came up with the following response which I hope makes interesting reading for you...

The conventional orbital model for atomic structure considers spectral line emission to be due to electrons jumping from an outer orbital to inner orbital, releasing quanta of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation detectable on a spectrometer. Knowing the modal wavelength of a spectral line, Planck’s constant allows the corresponding emission energy to be calculated (E=hc/λ). The calculated energies from wavelength are tabulated as the emitted energies corresponding to various assumed jumps (2nd orbital to 1st, 4th to 2nd, 4th. to 1st etc.).

As far as I am aware, no equation(s) or group of corrections exist that can accurately predict energies involved directly from first principles (from an electron’s charge, speed and average orbital level and distance from the nucleus) and so confirm the orbital jumping assertion. The orbital model thus remains simply a correlation between wavelength and energy rather than representing a predictive model.

There also seems to be problems with the orbital model for spectral emission. For instance, electrons would have to be continually jumping from outer to inner orbitals to keep the emissions coming and that begs the questions: in an high energy (excited) environment, why would an electron release energy by dropping to a lower orbit; would it then jump back again to an outer orbital as it becomes re-energised, see-sawing between orbitals; and can single photon emissions from multiple asynchronous sources (i.e. atoms) build into and present as a steady light (or spectral) source.

Then there are those strange ‘spdf’ orbitals that are far from spherical, and the fact that the existence of orbital electrons has never been detected in an orbital location in spite of hundreds being allegedly orbiting larger nuclei. The Uncertainty Principle might place a low probability on a single electron being at a certain location, but with several hundred whizzing around in a confined space it is not unreasonable to expect one to be physically, as opposed to anecdotally, detected within an orbital zone by now.

The E2M model contends that electrons do not orbit around the nucleus, but instead are bonded internally within the nucleus or externally with other elements or compounds. Central to E2M is the concept of Concentrated Energy Sources (CES), which is considered to be the most basic, elemental form of energy from which all matter is made. A CES consists of a spinning core of concentrated energy surrounded by an atmosphere of less dense swirling energy that presents as an electromagnetic field.

The key feature of CESs with respect to spectral lines is the return vortex that repatriates electromagnetic to the core energy (this concept is expanded in the notes at the end of this discussion). Return vortices have ample capacity to capture the CES’s own electromagnetic energy plus some external energy. However, their limited capacity means that when the net energy captured exceeds its threshold or quantum level, a concentrated ball of excess energy builds in and constricts the return vortex. As quickly as the constriction forms, it is purged, being violently flung from the vortex as a photon of energy. The constriction formation and release action is analogous to that of an automatic pressure relief valve, operating at a frequency that defines the wavelength of one of the observed spectral line groupings.

E2M contends that each nucleon (protons and neutrons) contains 18 CESs, but due to their position within each nucleon the return vortices’ strength and threshold energies vary slightly. There are at least five possible ‘standard’ variations or groupings that could represent slightly different frequency (and thus wavelength) emission possibilities within nucleons. And to complicate matters, particularly with increased availability of external energy, each return vortex could possibly develop multiple constriction locations representing higher quanta levels, each with its own signature emission frequency.

The energy levels associated with spectral lines as calculated from spectral wavelength measurement are not disputed. In spite the vast experimental resources having been directed towards spectral mapping and orbital correlation, the see-saw orbital jumping of the orbital model does not necessarily represent the only feasible explanation of spectral lines and other alternatives, such as E2M, need investigation.

Conventional Science currently only supports the Einstein derived curvature of space-time model for Gravity. However, space-time would seem to be more applicable to macro bodies in space, offering little realistic explanation of the gravitational force that keeps us all firmly attached to the Earth or makes us fall when we trip over. However, according to the brave new world approach of E2M, the energy return vortices of CESs within atomic structures of matter are in competition drawing in any available external energy. It contends that it is the tug-of-war pull by bodies on available external energy (some of which is provided by the bodies themselves) that presents as a pull between bodies that we refer to as Gravity.

Thus, for the E2M view, spectral lines and Gravity are quite closely related.

Some Notes on Concentrated Energy Sources (CESs)

Several CES geometries are possible but the simplest is that of a sphere, with a spherical core energy consisting of concentrated energy spinning around a polar axis (analogous to that of an axial revolving planet). When the tangential velocity at the CES’s outer equatorial plane is close to the speed of light, energy spins off the central core along the equatorial plane, being centrifugally flung tangentially outwards, stretching, thinning and spreading as it goes to form a swirling atmosphere of less dense energy that presents as an electromagnetic field.

The dynamics of the formation of a CES’s electromagnetic field is difficult to represent – particularly in 2D. It is analogous to the opening of the petals of a flower (see flower opening video https://vimeo.com/98276732).

The lower hemisphere of a CES of the figure below represents energy spinning from the equatorial plane, spinning with the core energy and stretching and spreading out and down, peeling away from but still attached to the core energy.

CES Electromagnetic Field.jpg

As the energy moves out and outwards it continues to peel off the core. When the peeled energy approaches vertical (still attached to the main core), the axial rotation twists it into a tight conical vortex centred on the spin axis, and it is wound back to be absorbed into the core energy. The rush of energy within the vortex creates a suction pull effect (not dissimilar to water spiralling down a sink plug-hole) that draws in available external energy.

The centrifugal equatorial escape and spiral spreading of energy only to be twist-returned via the return vortex is mirrored in both hemispheres of a CES. Thus a CES comes complete with an electromagnetic field and two polar vortices that draw electromagnetic energy back to the core energy.

Should the amount of external energy drawn in by the return vortex exceed its capacity, a local concentration of energy quickly builds up to constrict the vortex, only to be cleared almost immediately by being flung from the vortex as a small burst of concentrated energy (a photon).
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