Holes and the Spin Separation of Orbital Electrons

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Holes and the Spin Separation of Orbital Electrons

Postby Pivot on June 25th, 2020, 5:32 am 

In an earlier post titled Electric Fields and Currents: 'Houston, we have a Problem' there was a reasonable amount of feedback and discussion of terms and concepts, but there seemed to be a fair bit of confusion regarding terminology. I have now introduced terminology that I hope will minimise such problems. Also I have drawn upon some more mainline concepts, such as the Pauli Exclusion Principle, and tried to keep potentially off-putting non-mainstream side-issues contained, although probably not to the extent that I can escape the ‘Personal Theories’ category.

It has taken quite a bit of effort to re-work the concepts and to remove ambiguities, and to write a paper titled ‘Holes and the Spin Separation of Orbital Electrons’, the same name as this posting, and pre-publish it on viXra. The abstract of the paper is reproduced below:

Semiconductor theory relies on holes to act as the positive charge equivalents of electrons so as to support diffusion and drift across the depletion zone of a p-n junction. Holes need to be capable of movement to act as positive charge carriers, and to be involved in random collisions to produce the Brownian motion required to support diffusion and drift. Lack of movement, or even the required type of movement, is a major problem for semiconductor theory.

The Pauli Exclusion Principle indicates that, if an atomic orbital is occupied by an electron of one-half spin state, the orbital may only be shared by an electron of opposite spin (i.e. negative one-half spin). An atomic orbital is full when it is occupied by a pair of electrons of opposite spin, with no more electrons able to enter it until one of the pair vacates the orbital. This paper looks at the possibility and implications of extending the electron spin concept to free electrons within semiconductors, with positive and negative charge carriers simply being electrons with opposite spin.

The existence of two physically different charge carriers in the form of opposite-spin electrons, which requires only minor terminology adjustments to semiconductor theory, provides a better explanation of the formation and nature of electric fields; capacitor charge/discharge; and micro/radio wave generation. Also, the concept of electric currents being the one-way movement of generic electron charge carriers, which totally ignores electron spin, is challenged.


Should you be interested in the topic, or the earlier 'Houston, we have a Problem' posting, then have a read: it is an easy 15 page read with lots of diagrams for those that like pictures rather than words. And, of course, get back to this posting to let everyone know what you agree or disagree with. Silence should not be an option.

That viXra reference https://vixra.org/abs/2006.0215. Just choose the download: PDF link at the site.

Au revoir.
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Re: Holes and the Spin Separation of Orbital Electrons

Postby bangstrom on June 26th, 2020, 5:39 am 

Before getting on to hole velocities, does your view of a regular DC current velocity include multiple velocities such as those listed below?
1. The individual electron velocity
2. The electron drift velocity
3. The signal velocity
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Re: Holes and the Spin Separation of Orbital Electrons

Postby Pivot on June 26th, 2020, 7:51 am 

Hi Bangstrom

The estimation for electron velocity within a silicon substrate was taken from chapter 2 of ‘Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits’ by Chenming Hu, as can be seen in the attached image. It certainly wasn’t drift velocity or signal velocity. Signal velocity is more related to wave carriers and communications rather than electrons within semiconductors.

The point being made that sparse electrons within semiconductor substrate travel quite fast and involved in Brownian motion, and thus Fick’s diffusion law applies, whereas the quite densely packed electrons in wire conductor move a lot slower. The ball-park speed estimates were offered as guidelines and not the main issue.

Good to see that you have downloaded and had a look at the article.
Attachments
Chenming Hu and Electron Speed Calc.jpg
Chenming Hu and Friend agreeing about Electron Speed
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