The ideal replacement to big bang model by the gradualistic

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The ideal replacement to big bang model by the gradualistic

Postby coucouxiao on May 6th, 2017, 7:40 am 

The ideal replacement to big bang model by the gradualistic universe via correcting Einstein’s field equation

At present, the big bang cosmology cannot explain galaxy formation and can not make its statements consistent, it is in a disastrous state, the property of pseudo science is getting more and more apparent,and more and more scholars are abandoning the doctrine. The real universe is changing gradually and continuously, no matter what galaxies or objects are kept in continuous change, however big bang cosmology belongs to the catastrophic theory which can not describe and reflect these actual process of evolution, the big bang theory dooms lumpish and useless, will be gradually replaced by the gradualistic cosmology. However, did not go to find the problem from general relativity itself, instead from another fresh road trying to start the establishment of alternative models of the big bang theory is superficial, really can't be replaced and at best coexist. Chinese scholars Yang Jianliang and He Yu Hua by modifying the Einstein gravitational field equation to replace the big bang theory, clearly established the gradualistic cosmology, has improved and expanded the the theory and application of general relativity. Many industry insiders believe that if general relativity continues to stop it will be probably overthrown or replaced. The modified field equations continues to have the simplicity and elegancy of the original equation, unlike other modifications that only was required to cater to the cosmological application, free added items to field equation so that cannot go back to Newton's law of gravitation in spherically symmetric gravitational field in the distance, so such modified field equations can no longer continue to be called gravitational field equation because it has actually no contact with gravity.
The new alternative model of the big bang theory abandons the moment creation and accepts the idea of continuous and slow creation, today is naturally the key to understand the past and the future, on logic is more reasonable, can explain the observed facts more naturally. The new theory shows that not only the space between galaxies is expanding but also galaxies themselve in the same proportion and new material continuously produces in the celestial bodies and the average density of the universe matter remains unchanged-- -today’s night sky seen in magnifier is the actual night sky after some years. According to mass-luminosity ratio celestial bodies or galaxies in universe will become brighter and bighter. For example, the sun and the earth are increasing constantly, their distance is becoming more and more far, the sun is becoming more and more light and not getting dark, the earth is also getting hotter. It has irrefutable observed cvidences that the sun is more and more bright, which is not explained by the big bang theory, according to the big bang theory the temperature of the universe is more and more low,the temperature of the sun is only less rather than more and more high as there is no reason the sun is exception. If the cause the sun becomes brighter belongs to gravitational contraction it also applies to other celestial bodies, will inevitably lead to the absurd outcome that today's temperature of universe is higher than before gather. Although the sun like today’s look may exist 6 billion years the material to compose the sun material exists from the big bang on, this means the sun’s burning age is the time since the big bang began, in such a long time the sun neither fast nor slow combustion, what is the controllable mechanism can not be explained by the big bang.
The new theory can explain accurately in the solar system the observed gravitational anomalies, such as the other backward movement of unknown cause of the moon after cobsidering the tide effect, and the observed change of length of day is inconsistent with the tidal theory, and the radius of the earth is detected to increase 0.2-1 mm by the monitoring satellites each year, and the increase of distance between the sun and the earth. The continuous expansion of the universe apparently is the need of material continuous creation, the new theory makes the expansion of space-time organically contact up with material creation, and vividly interpretates that the space-time and material are an indivisible unity.After Jian Liang Yang’s groundbreaking paper “Modification of gravitational field equation and rational solution to cosmological puzzles” and ”Modification of Field Equation and Return of Continuous Creation----- Galaxies Form from Gradual Growth Instead of Gather of Existent Matter ” were published in internationaljournal,get the support of the majority of colleagues.Besides the above distinguishing features the new gradualistic theory of universe has the following characteristics:
1)keep the basic framework and basic principles of relativity unchanged, do not add any new assumptions, continue to accept the principle of cosmology, continue to use Robertson - Walker metric describes the isotropic universe
2)Solving the modified field equations the pressure is negative, some people may feel uncomfortable, this is actually a kind of secular bias. In fact both classical mechanics or relativity don’t really reject negative pressure, only appears in the equation of motion the pressure derivative in classical mechanics, the size of the pressure can be any value, do not rule out the negative. In relativity not only the size of the pressure but also pressure derivative appeares in the equation of motion, which requires pressure value can not be arbitrary, but still does not rule out the negative pressure。The calculation results show that the magnitude of the negative pressure is equal to the relativistic energy density of bodies, so you can guess that the negative pressure reflects the strong interaction between nucleons or quarks, gravity provides only minimal part to the pressure, the negative pressure is veritably gravitational source, unlike in the past they originate from each other. it is the emergence of negative pressure that leads to the continuous generation of material, as the field equation is applied to an object we have dm+Pdv=0(natural units), in form the increase of mass of celestial bodies comes from the work done by the negative pressure, the creation doesn’t mean arbitrary generation and the infringement to the law of energy conservation,and further computational result is dm=3Hmdt, H is Harbert parameters, which means that the quality of the current annual increase of any celestial body’s mass is about 1/10000000000, for the earth is about one trillion and two hundred billion tons, and radius increase by 0.5 mm one year. The micro view, the creation of material is the nuclear division, space-time expansion (may be considered as the expansion force) overcomes nuclear force to do work to make a nucleon divide into two the same nucleus, as a neutron is pulled into two so that increase a neutron in nucleon and equivalent to mitosis of cells,then neutron decay to release energy, which is the reason why the amount of radioactive material in the body remains stable for a long time, and it is clear that the radioactive material would not been found in nature if it was not continuously replenished
3. Although galaxies or objects increase, the angular velocity of their rotation or revolution keeps constant, i.e. periodic invariant, as with a magnifying glass to watch the circular motion, not only the radius of the orbit but also the speed is in the amplification but the period constant, the required energy source is still from the work done by the negative pressure. The properties of orbital expansion can be derived totally from geodesic equations rather than additional assumptions. The new cosmological theory for solar physics, space physics, has important guiding significance in the study of geophysical and seismic genesis
4. Similar to the big bang, the new theory still explain the microwave background radiation for comprehensive reflection of light after red shift emitted from far celestial bodies whose distances can not distinguished in our instrument, but do not think from the same sphere surface, and the lower the frequency of the background photon is, the smaller the anisotropy is, because the light source more far, the fact reflects that the earlier, the more uniform distribution of matter. The uniformity of the universe today in a wide range is the magnification of the uniformity of the small scale in the past. The astral form extremely thin and infinitely deep gas, equivalent to a cavity, our universe is similar to a cavity, the light from far has blackbody spectrum. The big bang theory can not explain the uniformity of the early universe and the backbody spectrum. In the big bang frame universal temperature is decreased, the so-called thermal equilibrium do not exist, and in fact even the thermal equilibrium had existed the backbody spectrum is also not necessary because it is not a sufficient condition for the blackbody, the objects in heat balance are of plenty, but rarely has the blackbody spectrum.
5. The rapid creation of matter or energy (such as the big bang) is contrary to common sense, but slow creation is not contrary to common sense, should be allowed. On the contrary, if you think the matter must not be created, is actually the absolutization of mass conservation law, which isn’t consistent with the epistemology of dialectical materialism theory. Materialist dialectics thinks that any physical law is approximate to reflect natural phenomena, Therefore, blind incautious and extreme use of the law is all absolutization to physical laws, is not a scientific attitude.
6. The new theory thinks that space-time is infinite, no longer rely on the so-called critical density, the universe's expansion and contraction cycle, alternately, the scale factor meets the sine function R(t)=Csinat, excluding the nonrational expansion: big bang --- decelerating ---- inflation --- decelerating ---accelerating .......
The new relation between distance an redshift derived from the modified field equations is highly consistent with observations, the accelerated expansion of the universe does not exist. The new theory thinks that at some moment in the past the scale factor R (t) =0, at which any star’s mass was zero, the absolute temperature of universe was zero, then the mass gradually increased with the increase of temperature rose, the conclusion is just opposite to that universe started from the fireball of big bang. It has a lot of observation basis that the temperature of matter in the universe is gradually rising rather than falling, such as observations show the earth 2 billion 700 million years ago was a hockey and atmospheric pressure halved, the sun’s brightness was only fifteen percent today, in contrast, usuall so-called the evolution of the sun from high temperature to low temperature never really observed, and largely most probably it did not actually happen.
7. The new theory has unified the dark matter and dark energy, the modified gravitational field equation is including all effects of dark matter and dark energy and is a complete field equations. Due to negative pressure has the multiple nature of pressure, dark matter and dark energy, dark matter and dark energy arise no longer, all effects of dark matter and dark energy are fully absorbed in the negative pressure. The more important thing is that the negative pressure can be solved through the gravitational field equation, so reduce three cosmological parameters.
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