Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Discussions related to engineering and its applications. From civil and mechanical to aeronautic and robotics, etc.

Postby Faradave on June 21st, 2015, 2:39 pm 

Re: Thin Is In

Darby wrote:Forgive me in advance for my not having read the whole thread yet...

Granted, as your time is obviously very well spent in the kitchen.

Darby wrote:...the counter is immediately next to your mechanism, so the air column is partially confined and you're pushing against the counter ... in other words, ideal hover conditions.

Actually, all the lift is derived from air oscillating in a very thin layer between the aluminum wing and the glass deflector above. Flow parallel to the wing comes at the expense of transverse pressure. I consider it an AC interpretation of Bernoulli's principle. The thinner the air bearing, the higher the AC flow and resulting lift. (video 3.5 min.)

VID06208.jpg
With plenty of clearance below, 5.7 lb. is suspended by orthosonic lift with a mere 3w!

Darby wrote:Can/will this paradigm work in an unconfined open space...I'm guessing not.

Under a separate pending patent, I'm developing a free air version (orthosonic thrust) which, as you've guessed, is much more challenging.
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Postby Faradave on June 25th, 2015, 11:38 am 

Re: Bearing Up - underpressure

hyksos wrote:Hmm. So I'm thinking kickstarter. Or call Elon Musk directly in his office.

That was rather prescient. The July '15 issue of Popular Science magazine features Elon Musk's Hyperloop and two companies (HT & HTT) racing to develop it. I was interested to read, "Both companies are also investigating a different strategy: air bearings. Jets of air blasting down from beneath the capsules would enable them to skim through the tube like a puck streaking across an air-hockey table. ...air bearings...are low friction and don't wear out...The hyperloop's bearings, like its motors will have to be designed from scratch."

Image

Since O-lift is essentially an air bearing, I can't help but see potential here. Virtually all current air bearings employ direct current (DC) with attendant continuous air supply. O-lift is much more efficient because it instead oscillates local air (AC).

An obvious problem for O-lift would seem to be the plan for the hyperloop tube to maintain an internal pressure 1/1000th that of atmospheric (a rather tall and expensive order, I think for a hundreds of miles long tube.) However, "If the capsule fits snugly inside the tube, it would have to push an increasingly high-pressure mass of air ahead of it, a phenomenon known as pistoning."

"Musk proposed making the tube nearly twice as big as the capsule. This would allow enough room for some, but not all, of the air to flow around the capsule as it speeds through at Mach 0.99." NASA's analysis suggests "The tube might need to be four times the width of the hyperloop capsule, and the speed should be capped at 620 mph, or roughly Mach 0.80. That would raise the construction costs..." I'll say!

I think they should drop the tube and focus on narrow (no more than two seats wide), streamlined (a la bullet train) transport at 300-400 mph. Even if they don't, that air passing by in the tube has a greater density for O-Lift to operate.

Either way, low profile overhead air bearing, as provided by O-Lift, offers an efficient alternative to maglev and DC air bearings.
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on February 12th, 2016, 12:59 pm 

That's a completely new principle Faradave, congratulations, it's very original. How did it come to your mind?
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Re: Inchworm Drive

Postby Faradave on February 15th, 2016, 5:00 pm 

Inchworm wrote:How did it come to your mind?

Funny you should ask!

As a kid I used to scavenge broken radios from a nearby dump. Kids don't need a reason but I was trying to make one good one from several broken ones. Someone said to me, "There's no sense reinventing the wheel." one too many times, because that's when I decided to invent a car with no wheels.

I cut an old paint pad into 2 inch squares and ironed them to get the fibers leaning all one way. (They already tend to have a grain when you buy them.) Then cut away the cage and most of the cone from an radio loudspeaker (making what today is called an "exciter"). I glued some Styrofoam spacers on its front and back then some pop-sickle stick legs which were in turn glued to the pads.
Inchworm Drive.png
With a directional bias on the fibers of the pads below (like the bottoms of cross country skis), oscillating them with an exciter above, results in forward motion.

I didn't have a sine wave generator or amp so, I just used music diverted from the speaker of a radio. With some loud rock & roll, my little "inchworm drive" would sporadically buzz along pretty well, especially on a table cloth. It even worked with a model car body glued over it!

From there, I rigged another exciter to a plastic ruler, positioned as a rudder of a Styrofoam raft. With vibration, the "rudder" became a fishtail propeller for the boat.

Buzzer boat.png
A magnetic buzzer and battery can excite a plastic ruler into swimming a boat forward.

Then, having conquered land and sea (in my own mind), I set my thoughts on how to use sound waves to achieve aerodynamic lift. It took lot longer than I thought. (Ferrite magnet based exciters are much too heavy for ornithopters.) But it was a fun journey!
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on February 16th, 2016, 10:50 am 

I had this thought yesterday: scientific discoveries are inventions that nature had already made, and human inventions are new principles derived from natural ones. You were a lot more precocious than me Faradave, but I nevertheless finally committed a nice invention when I was sixty. What a nice feeling to discover a new principle. Cheers!
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Re: Paraskiflex

Postby Faradave on February 16th, 2016, 11:34 am 

Image

Cool! I expect it works for sleds, snowboards and possibly ice skates. The speed limit sign is a nice touch.
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on February 16th, 2016, 3:01 pm 

It works with anything that goes on snow, but it isn't the only power kite structure available for that. This picture is from Nunavut land in the Far North of Quebec, quite far from T² incidently. :^)
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on March 15th, 2016, 11:02 am 

I was wondering... What happens if you inverse the force on the system Faradave? If you exert a push instead of a pull?

Another question:
Could your system replace a ball bearing system if you would apply it to a sphere instead of to a flat surface?
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Re: Negative & Positive Pressure Air Bearings

Postby Faradave on March 15th, 2016, 12:30 pm 

A Bernoulli grip is an air bearing which deflects a steady supply of air (DC) to create lift.
Image

My orthosonic lift (O-lift) is derives its decrease in air pressure from the alternating flow (AC) of laterally deflected sound waves. The advantage is that no continuous supply of air is needed.

O-lift develops an attractive force between the wing and track regardless of orientation. So, when I'm testing a new device, I typically do it facing down, to avoid crashes. This photo shows me measuring the downward pull of O-lift (as I pull up with 3.5 lbs. force) in such a test.
Image
I typically do preliminary testing on a Formica table top, using a spring scale (like the Wright brothers did with their kites) to determine lift over a range of frequencies and powers.

Those were considered "negative pressure" air bearings (compared to ambient). However when the acoustic stream is not deflected by a very close surface, it exhibits a push (acoustic radiation pressure, or more broadly near field radiation pressure) which makes it a positive pressure air bearing.
Image
Here acoustic radiation pressure levitates Styrofoam beads.

Image
With a broader wave front, a thin plate is levitated by near field radiation.
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on March 15th, 2016, 1:43 pm 

I see that it can levitate a weight, but can it levitate more weight than it can suspend?
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Re: Lift Efficiency

Postby Faradave on March 15th, 2016, 9:05 pm 

As far as I know, no other aerodynamic means comes close to the lift efficiency of O-lift in terms of force per unit of power (energy per unit time). O-lift has achieved 10 newtons per watt. Others are measured in millinewtons per watt.
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on March 16th, 2016, 11:17 am 

Yes, but would there be an air cushion between the floor and the sound source if you would turn it over the floor, in such a way that it would exert no friction on the floor if you gave it a push?
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Re: O-lift not great for floor-based hoverboards

Postby Faradave on March 16th, 2016, 2:15 pm 

In order for O-lift to avoid repulsive near field radiation pressure (which emanates form rigid piston heads), I employ wings that are not rigid. The region just above the exciter then oscillates vertically, while the majority of the wing develops lift transverse to the radially deflected acoustic flow. That wouldn't happen if the entire wing oscillated rigidly. So far, near field radiation is not efficient or powerful enough to support heavy loads, such as a hoverboard.

However, flexibility in the wing means that it sustains very small bending waves, which at high ∆P can contact the deflecting surface (flight track) and cause friction. This is minimized with overhead lift. Facing down it would be a problem for frictionless applications such as a hoverboard. Current DC air bearings are able to provide this to 1000's of pounds but an air compressor is required or the ride time would be limited by the size of compressed air bottle carried. In addition, the floor has to be clean of even sandy debris as the lift height is sub-millimeter. You can get higher but it takes a much bigger compressor and airflow.


I've found that a little bit of friction is helpful to limit drifting when the support surface (track) is not perfectly level (and it never is). Further, I expect with ceiling and wall crawling robots, directed movement will come from a pair of attached wheels which get their needed traction (i.e. friction) from O-lift, like this guy's DC version but much more efficient and without the connected air tube.
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on March 17th, 2016, 10:31 am 

Faradave wrote:Further, I expect with ceiling and wall crawling robots, directed movement will come from a pair of attached wheels which get their needed traction (i.e. friction) from O-lift, like this guy's DC version but much more efficient and without the connected air tube.
This application seems promising for O-lift. Did you contact the company that developed it?
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Re: O-Lift 2016

Postby Faradave on March 17th, 2016, 3:15 pm 

Inchworm wrote:Did you contact the company that developed it?

Not yet, I believe its an academic concern. I will after my next round of tests.

Out of about ten attempted contacts so far, one local air bearing company has said they would be interested in seeing an order of magnitude increase in capacity to further demonstrate scalablity. That's what I'm working on now. I'm designing for a 35 pound payload and am about to begin preliminary tests. (Face down pick up force from a smooth table top for frequency ranging. Then power up slowly to test efficiency at the best frequency found.)

Development costs, though still quite modest compared to corporate, ramp up with scale, so I take my time designing. I also need to be more attentive to safety. I'm moving away from a tempered glass flight track as I 'm not sure it can take these loads with vibration. I need more room too, so I'll install the track on rafters above my work space. Of course, that also means I need to be sure large objects aren't crashing onto my head!
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Inchworm on March 17th, 2016, 3:44 pm 

I had the same preoccupations while developing my power kite, but I was too reckless so I was hurt many times. I was 64 when I quit, and I was still flying at 20 feet in the air half of the time when the wind was strong enough.
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Re: Orthosonic Lift - 2015 Update

Postby Myuncle on July 3rd, 2016, 2:06 pm 

nice thread, and good luck with the experiments!
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Re: Moderate Progress

Postby Faradave on July 3rd, 2016, 2:29 pm 

Thanks Myuncle,

I'm up to 15 lbs. payload capacity, but still have a way to go to the 38lbs. that New Wave Air Bearings asked to see.
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